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30 terms

Chemistry: Unit 3 Section A

Chemcom: Vocabulary practice for unit 3 section A
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crude oil
unrefined liquid petroleum as it is pumped from the ground by oil wells
hydrocarbon
a molecule composed only of carbon and hydrogen atoms
distillation
a process that separates liquid substances based on differences in their boiling points
distillate
the condensed products of distillation
fraction
one of the distillate portions collected during distillation
fractional distillation
a process of separating a mixture into its components by boiling and condensing the components
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction among molecules
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry dealing with hydrocarbons and their derivatives
carbon chain
carbon atoms chemically linked to one another, forming a chainlike molecular structure
shell
outer-shell electrons are commonly called valence electrons
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
covalent bond
a linkage between two atoms involving the sharing of one pair, two pairs, or three pairs of electrons
single covalent bond
a bond in which two electrons are shared by the two bonded atoms
Lewis dot structure
the representation of atoms, ions, and molecules where valence electron dots surround each atom's symbol
structural formula
a chemical formula showing the arrangement of atoms and covalent bonds in a molecule, in which each electron pair in a covalent bond is represented by a line between the symbols of two atoms
alkane
a hydrocarbon containing only single covalent bonds
tetrahedron
a regular triangular pyramid
straight chain alkane
an alkane consisting of molecules in which each carbon atom in liked to no more than two other carbon atoms
branched chain alkane
an alkane in which at least one carbon atom is bonded to three or four other carbon atoms
structural isomers
substances involving rearrangement of atoms or bonds within a molecule but sharing a common molecular formula
alkane 1 carbon prefix
meth- (eg CH4 = methane)
alkane 2 carbon prefix
eth-
alkane 3 carbon prefix
prop-
alkane 4 carbon prefix
but-
alkane 5 carbon prefix
pent-
alkane 6 carbon prefix
hex-
alkane 7 carbon prefix
hept-
alkane 8 carbon prefix
oct-
alkane 9 carbon prefix
non-
alkane 10 carbon prefix
dec-