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APES Chapter 2: Environmental Laws, Economics, and Ethics
Environment, 7th Ed. Raven Berg Hassenzahl
Terms in this set (47)
Northwest Forest Plan
Provided federal aid to retrain some timber workers for other careers. However, environmental groups were unhappy and sued the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management, because the agencies failed to complete the necessary surveys.
John James Audubon
Painted lifelike portraits of birds and other animals in their natural surroundings. His paintings, based on detailed field observations, aroused widespread public interest in the wildlife of North America.
Henry David Thoreau
a prominent U.S. writer, lived for two years on the shore of Walden Pond near Concord, MA and observed nature. He contemplate how people could economize and simplify their lives to live in harmony with the natural world.
George Perkins Marsh
A farmer, linguist, and diplomat at various times during his life. He is most remembered for his book Man and Nature which recognized the interrelatedness of human and environmental systems and provided the first discussions of humans as agents of global environmental change.
General Revision Act
Gave the president authority to establish forest reserves on federally owned land.
used the General Revision Act to remove 17.4 million hectares of forest, primarily in the West, from logging.
The first head of the U.S. Forest Service; a utilitarian conservationist; supported the expanding of the nation's forest reserves and managing forest scientifically, as by harvesting trees only at the rate at which they regrow.
biocentric conservationist; founded Sierra Club, a national conservation organization that is still active on the ragge of environmental issues; lost the battle with San Francisco over its efforts to dam a river and form a reservoir in the Hetch Hetchy Valley.
established the Civilian Conservation Corps, which employed over 175,000 men to plant trees, make paths, and roads in national parks and forest, build dams to control flooding, and perform other activities to protect natural resources.
a wildlife biologist and environmental visionary who was influential in the conservation movement of the mid- to late 20th century. Game Management, published in 1933, supported the passage of the act in which new taxes on sporting weapons and ammunition funded wildlife management and research. He also wrote a Sand County Almanac which argued persuasively for a land ethic and the sacrifices such an ethic requires.
Wrote "Wilderness Essay," which was written to a commission conducting a national inventory of the wilderness lands, helped create support for the passage of the Wildness Act of 1964.
United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964)
published The Population Bomb, in which he described the unavoidable environmental damage necessary for Earth to support such a huge population, including soil loss, groundwater depletion, and extinctions. Ehrlich's book raised public awareness of the dangers of overpopulation and triggered debates on how to deal effectively with population issues.
former senator from Wisconsin who influenced Denis Hayes.
Harvard graduate; organized first earth day
Focus the Nation
Nearly 2000 school, civic religious, and business groups participated in the first annual Focus the Nation evens Activities included climate change symposia, rallies, workshops, and town hall meetings.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
established in 1970 to protect human health and our environment; monitoring and reducing air/water pollution, overseeing hazardous waste disposal and recycling.
National Environmental Policy Act
Required the federal government to consider the environmental impact of any proposed federal action. This led to EISs.
environmental impact statements
A document that summarizes potential and expected adverse impacts on the environment associated with a project as well as alternatives to the proposed project; typically mandated by law for public and/or private projects.
Council on Environmental Quality
Monitors the required EISs and reports directly to the president.
was pro-business, as EPA administrator and leaving many top-level positions in the agency unfilled.
The first EPA administrator and was widely respected for having established the agency's credibility and authority. Ruckleshaus advocated a rational, organized approach to environmental regulation that would avoid the "pendulum" effect of stringent and then relaxed environmental regulation.
Clean Air Act
Economic model that compares the marginal costs and marginal benefits of a decision
Environmental laws have 50% compliance rate
Won Nobel Prize in economics in 1998 by studying famine; published essay "Poverty and Famine" from personal experience-witnessed famine in Bengal; demonstrated that food was still strong just not well distributed
Rational Actor Model
In economics, the assumption that all individuals spend their limited resources in a fashion that maximizes their individual utilities.
An economic term referring to the benefit that an individual gets from some good or service. Rational actors try to maximize utility.
In economics, the effects (usually negative) of a firm that does not have to pay all the costs associated with its production.
benefits to humans- including clean water and fresh air- provided by natural systems.
marginal cost of abatement
cost associated with reducing a small additional amount of pollution
command and control
an approach to protecting the environment that sets strict legal limits and threatens punishment for violations of those limits
licenses to emit limited quantities of pollutants that can be bought and sold by polluters
marketable waste-discharge permits
allows the holder to emit a specified amount of a given pollutant
An analysis that determines the optimal use of resources to reach a predetermined, constant end point—the desired health outcome.
National income accounts
represents the total income of a nation for a given year. Measured by GDP and NDP. They are misleading because they do not incorporate environmental factors.
Earth's resources and processes that sustain living organisms.
Environmental Performance Index (EPI)
assesses a country's commitment to environmental and resource management.
(late 1970's) environmental sociologist from Clark Atlanta University identified patterns of injustice in Houston.
The right of every citizen, regardless of age, race, gender, social class, or other factors, to adequate protection from environmental hazards
International treaty; designed to prevent the transfer of hazardous wastes from nation to nation
Described climate change not just as an environmental justice issue but as "the greatest social justice issue of all times." He argues that more than any other issue in history, climate change has the most inequitable distribution of benefits (the use of fossil fuels by a small but very wealthy percentage of the worlds population) and risks (the adverse effects of climate change on a large but very poor percentage of the worlds population).
A field of applied ethics that considers the moral basis of environmental responsibility and how far this responsibility extends
A worldview based on how the environment works, our place in the environment, and right and wrong environmental behaviors
An understanding of our place in the world based on human superiority and dominance over nature, the unrestricted use of natural resources, and increased economic growth to manage an expanding industrial base.
deep ecology worldviews
An understanding of our place in the world based on harmony with nature, a spiritual respect for life, and the belief that humans and all other species have an equal worth.
Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle - describes the deep ecology worldview.
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