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Unit 1 Foundations
Terms in this set (52)
Greek: house, management; describes the ways of obtaining and distributing the wealth and resources which people take from the physical world
Greek: skill, knowledge of; describes the actual methods and tools used by people to obtain their physical resources
principles of distinction between right and wrong
pertaining to the keeping of sheep and cattle
related to the cultivation of land
period of time before written records; 95% of all human existence, before writing
a complex culture with advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology
lived between 20000 and 30000 years ago; tired to explain and control world; have evidence of funeral; had religious beliefs, funerals, performed rituals, were resourceful, hunted in sub-artic regions, and made tools
the time when people began using bronze to fashion tools and weapons; started in Sumer around 3000 B.C.
people began to use iron
Describe the lives of human beings during Paleolithic Age
During the Paleolithic Age, which accounts for 95% of human history, men and women were hunters and gatherers. Nomadic hunting bands spread out across the globe. Cultural evolution was slow but their were inprovements in tools and language and social organization as well as religion and art
The branch of science and technology concerned with the properties of metals and their production and purification.
Besides the development of superior polished and diverse tools, what is the most significant human development during the Neolithic Age?
Neolithic Revolution: beginning of farming and herding, a major economic occurrence that led to villages and the need for social organization
What did agriculture and animal domestication foster?
Two new ways of life: village life and permanent settlements. It started social change as the need for organization and leaders emerged. It also led to improvement of technology and invention of myths and gods to explain natural forces
How did permanent settlements based on farming change human values and lead to new social problems?
There was a need for social organization and a transition into civilized life. Surpluses meant that cultivators could exchange part of their harvest for the specialized services and productions of non-cultivators, such as toolmakers and weavers. ** This also led eventually to social classes which emerged from the government being "superior"
Why were walls necessary for the early agricultural settlements?
Walls were necessary as protection against wild animals and other enemies.
ancient cultures, looking for ancient settlements by digging for tools to learn about their culture
study of man; physical-development of human evolution over time; cultural- human cultures in different places
Modern humans who evolved form homo erectus
During the Paleolithic Age, which accounts for 95% of human history, men and women were hunters and gatherers. Earliest and longest part of the Stone Age; called Old Stone Age; earliest and longest part of the Stone Age; called Old Stone Age; lasted from 2.5 million to 8000 B.C.
New Stone Age.; people learned to polish stone tolls, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals; women began agriculture when they spread seeds; began 8000 B.C. and ended as early as 3000 B.C.
The introduction to agriculture and livestock herding that allowed civilizations to stay put
Who led the earliest governments of the city-kingdoms? Why do you think?
Priests led the earliest governments because it was believed that the gods controlled good fortune, therefore the priests could communicate with them to get it
What were ziggurats and what do they reveal about early Mesopotamian society?
Ziggurats were large temples and economic centers used to store food, they reveal the economy and religious importance and also trust in government
What did the earliest city dwellers eat and drink?
Barley, wheat, vegetables, cheese, fish, figs, dates. ALso a lot of calories were consumed through ale
What did shortages of certain materials cause the Mesopotamian people to rely upon?
The valley lacked metals so they had to trade with far off places
In relation to the gods (forces of nature) how did the Mesopotamian peoples see themselves?
The people saw themselves as gods slaves almost, always trying to t please them and do go so they would not get bad karma
What do the written laws of Hammurabi's reveal about Babylonian society?
Punished wrongdoers, importance of contracts, division between gender and class
How did geography affect civilization in Mesopotamia? In Egypt?
M: Unpredictable flooding and no defense led to more changes in culture, E: Predictable flooding and isolation let to a isolated culture
Indo-European languages (origin and spread)
group of nomadic people who may have come from the steppes; herded cattle, sheep, and goats; tamed horses; rode on chariots; formed language-ancestors for English, Spanish, Persian, and Hindi; many similar words to this language in many modern languages today
Name the group of languages spoken by most peoples in the ancient Fertile Crescent
Spoke Semitic, (the modern languages of Arabic and Hebrew belong to this language family).
Name the Indo-European people who came to inhabit Asia Minor (also known as ...?)
The Hittites, Anatolia—home of modern Turkey
How was the Nile River in Egypt quite different from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers? Why did the ancient Greek historian refer to Egypt as the "gift of the Nile"? Why did the people of Egypt develop a unique civilization?
It flooded reliably. Egypt is the gift of the Nile because of its heavy reliance on it. Unique because of isolation caused by desert and ocean
How were Egyptians views on life different from those of Sumerians?
Optimistic about fortunes, assumed order and worked to preserve it and thank gods for the river
King of ancient Egypt, the god and leader
Ancient Egyptian concept of the way things should be, truth and perfection
The Old Kingdom period (aka the Pyramid Age); What happened at the end?
2700-2181 BC. Prosperity and peace, kings acquired wealth in which they used to make pyramids. Drought came and short lived kings ruled
What did the pyramids tell us about Egyptian civilization?
advanced math and engineering, belief in religion (farmers traveled from all over to help), organized society (to build it), no need to worry about invasion
Developed during OKP, sacred egyptian writing used to record contracts and religious material
Iron age was an area of . Including these three groups:
Era of small states:
Persia's king who ruled from 550 and 539 BC. He was a military genus
first five books of the Hebrew Bible; most sacred writings in the Jewish tradition; gives us history to early Hebrews
Epic of Gilgamesh
epic poem that provided historians about early Southwest Asia
first book in the Bible that is about how God created the earth and the first humans
human-made objects, such as tools and jewelry
highly mobile people who moved from place to place searching for food
nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plants
taming of animals
The development of skills in a specific kind of work
The time when people began using bronze rather than copper and stone; the beginning of civilizations
Alphabet, better metal, coinage
reigned from 1992-1750 BC, legacy=code of laws he put together
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