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Mechanisms and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Injuries Test

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Types of Tissue Properties
Load, Stiffness, Stress, Strain
Load
An external force acting on the body causing internal reactions within the tissues
Stiffness
Ability of a tissue to resist an external force
Stress
Internal Resistance to a Load
Strain
Internal change in tissue (i.e. length) resulting in deformation
Types of Tissue Loading
Tension, Compression, Shearing, Bending, Torsion
Tension
a force that pulls and stretches tissue
compression
Force that results in tissue crush - two forces applied towards one another
Shearing
Force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue
Bending
Two force pairs act at opposite ends of a structure
Torsion
Loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends
Types of Muscles
Cardiac, Smooth, Striated
Muscle Strain
Stretch, tear or rip to muscle or adjacent tissue
Grade I Muscle Strain
some fibers have been stretched or actually torn resulting in tenderness and pain on active ROM, movement painful but full range present
Grade II Muscle Strain
number of fibers have been torn and active contraction is painful, usually a depression or divot is palpable, some swelling and discoloration result
Grade III Muscle Strain
Complete rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction, significant impairment, with initially a great deal of pain that diminishes due to nerve damage
Muscle Spasm
a reflex reaction cause by trauma
Clonic Muscle Spasm
alternating involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations in quick succession
Tonic Muscle Spasm
rigid contraction that lasts a period of time
Acute-Onset Muscle Soreness
accompanies fatigue, and is transient muscle pain experienced immediately after exercise
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
pain that occurs 24-48 hours following activity that gradually subsides
Muscle Soreness
Overexertion in strenuous exercise resulting in muscular pain
Types of Synovial Joints
Gliding Joints, Hinge Joints, Pivot Joints, Condyloid Joints, Saddle Joint, Ball & Socket Joints
Gliding Joint
Allow only gliding or sliding ex. carpals of wrist, AC jnt
Hinge Joints
act as a door hinge, allows flexion & extension ex. elbow
Pivot Joints
one bone rotates about another ex. proximal radioulnar jnt & distal radioulnar jnt
Condyloid Joint
two bones fit together with an odd shape & one bone concave & the other convex. flexion, extension, abduction & adduction. ex. wrist
Saddle Joint
resemble a saddle, permit the same movements as condyloid jnts but with greater movement. ex Carpometacarpal
Ball & socket Joint
allow for all movements except gliding. ex shoulder(glenohumeral), hip
ligament sparin
Result of traumatic joint twist that causes stretching or tearing of connective tissue
Grade I Ligament Sprain
some pain, minimal loss of function, no abnormal motion, and mild point tenderness
Grade II Ligament Sprain
pain, moderate loss of function, swelling, and instability with tearing and separation of ligament fibers
Grade III Ligament Sprain
extremely painful, inevitable loss of function, severe instability and swelling, and may also represent subluxation
Bone Structure
Dense connective tissue matrix
Outer compact tissue
Inner porous cancellous bone including Haversian canals
Types of Bones
Flat bones, Irregular bones, short bones, long bones
flat bone
skull, ribs, scapulae
irregular bone
vertebrae and skull
short bones
wrist and ankle
long bones
humerus, ulna, tibia, radius, fibia, femur, bones most comonly injured
Closed Fracture
fracture where there is little movement or displacement
Open Fracture
Fracture where it involves displacement of the fractured ends and breaking through the surrounding tissue