59 terms

Ch 31 chronic respiratory disorders

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

pneumoconiosis
one many occupational diseases caused by inhalation of particles of industrial substances
bronchiectasis
permanent dilation of a portion of the bronchi or bronchioles
granuloma
a collection of inflammatory cells commonly surrounded by a fibrotic tissue that represents a chronic inflammatory response to infectious or noninfectious agents
asthma
a condition characterized by episodes of bronchospasm that causes wheezing and dyspnea; reactive airway disease
emphysema
a disorder characterized by a loss of lung elasticity with trapping of air, retained carbon dioxide, and dyspnea
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lung
cor pulmonale
right-sided heart failure secondary to pulmonary disease
brachytherapy
placement of a radiation source in the body to treat a malignancy
bronchitis
bronchial inflammation
asbestosis
interstitial fibrosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers
varying combinations of conditions that make up chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema
goals of medical treatment for COPD
attain symptom relief, slow disease progression improve exercise tolerance, prevent and treat complications
signs and symptoms of impending respiratory failure to watch for with patients experiencing impaired gas exchange
tachypnea, diaphoresis, loss of consciousness
red blood cell count is typically elevated in patients with chronic hypoxemia
to compensate for inadequate oxygen in the blood
reasons for the rise in the incidence of tuberculosis in the U.S since 1986
development of drug resistant strains, increased population of people with HIV
diagnostic tests done to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis
sputum cultures, acid-fast smears of body fluids, tuberculin skin tests, chest radiographs
examples of offending substances that may lead to occupational lung disease
dust, chlorine, asbestos, coal dust
chronic bronchitis
productive cough, exertional dyspnea, and wheezing
tuberculosis
cough, night sweats, chest pain and tightness, fatigue, and anorexia
symptoms of emphysema
dyspnea on exertion; may display use of accessory muscles of respiration; barrel chest
emphysema, cardiovascular disease, esophageal reflux, chronic bronchitis are increased by
smoking
alveolar destruction, bronchospasm,, air trapping related to
impaired gas exchange
increased secretions, weak cough related to
ineffective airway clearance
hypoxemia related to
anxiety
anorexia, dyspnea related to
altered nutrition; less than body requirements
decreased ciliary action, increased secretions, weak cough related to
risk for infection
inability to meet oxygen needs related to
activity intolerance
right-sided heart failure related to
decreased cardiac out put
3 major airway characteristics of a patient with asthma
inflammation, obstruction, edema
the opening of the airway decrease in size in patients with asthma because
contracted smooth muscle, inflammation
a serious complication of bronchoconstriction
hypoxemia
according to the NIH 2007 guidelines, the four major components of medical treatments for asthma include
assess and monitor asthma severity and control, education for partnership I care, control of environmental factors, medications
the best position for patients with bronchial asthma is
fowlers
arterial blood gas findings that should be reported to the physician if they occur in patients with impaired gas exchange include
Pa02 decreases and PaC02 increases
a nasal cannula is preferred over a face mask because the mask may increase the patients feeling of
suffocation
in patients withy emphysema, which causes patients to use accessory muscle for breathing
lungs are often hyperinflated, the diaphragm is flattened
the most serous complications of COPD are respiratory failure and
heart failure
the term blue bloater is used to describe patients with
advanced chronic bronchitis
the term pink puffer is used to describe some patients with emphysema who have normal skin color due o
normal arterial blood gases
the most reliable diagnostic test for COPD
pulmonary function test
drugs that are ordered to decrease airway resistance and the work of breathing for patients with COPD are called
bronchodilators
the preferred route of administration of bronchodilator drugs for patients with COPD is by
inhalation
during the physical examination of patients with COPD, the nurse observes the neck for
distended veins
recommended daily fluid intake to help thin secretions in patients with impaired gas exchange
2500-3000ml
contributes to increased feelings of restlessness and anxiety in the asthma patient
decreased arterial oxygen
during the physical examination of patients with COPD the thorax is inspected for the classic
barrel chest shape
signs and symptoms of airway obstruction in the patient with COPD
tachycardia, abnormal breath sounds, dyspnea
patients with COPD are encouraged to drink extra fluids each day because
liquefy secretions
the work of breathing is increased with COPD which in return increases the patients
caloric requirements
the recommended diet for the patient who is dyspenic is a soft diet with
frequent, small meals
if the COPD patient becomes excessively dyspenic or develops tachycardia during activity, the patient should
stop the activity
the nurse monitors the patient with chronic bronchitis and emphysema for what signs of heart failure
tachycardia, increasing dyspnea, dependent edema
a persistent, productive cough with blood sputum (hemoptysis) is a common symptom of
tuberculosis
most common preventive drug therapy for tuberculosis is
isoniazid
problems that develop when status asthmaticus is not treated
pneumothorax, acidosis, right-sided heart failure
complications that occur when sever, persistent bronchospasm is not treated
thickening of airway tissues, air trapping in the alveoli
treatment for a patient with a positive TB skin test, a negative chest radiograph, and who is at risk for tuberculosis
treat prophylactically to prevent development of active tuberculosis
contributing factors to and appropriate nursing interventions for a patient with active tuberculosis who is experiencing social isolation
good hand hygiene by patient and health care providers, wear particulate masks (disposable respirators) during contact with the patient, explain to the patient that isolation is temporary to protect others from infection, encourage the patient to express feelings about the diagnosis and isolation
foods that must be avoided by patients who are taking isoniazid
aged cheese