Biology Unit Test 1 Review
Terms in this set (34)
Property of water causes water to form a "bubble" on top of a smooth surface.
Cohesion/ Surface Tension
Property of water causes water to curve up along the edges of a graduated cylinder.
Intermolecular bonding in water
Intramolecular Bonds in water
Covalent bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen
Snake (Divide by 10)
If the primary producer starts with 40,000 Calories of energy, which organism will have 400 calories of energy?
What are the 6 levels of organization?
organisms, populations, communities, ecosystem, and biosphere.
What are a few roles of microorganisms in the ecosystem?
Nitrogen Fixation, Decomposing various things
Why is atmospheric nitrogen not usable by most living things?
The bonds in nitrogen are often times too strong for most things to break
What is a limiting nutrient?
What happens if there is a lack/abundance of that nutrient?
A limiting nutrient is a relatively scarce naturally occurring element. Growth only occurs as long as the nutrient is available
Lack- Extreme population decrease/ extinction
Abundance- Population increase
What are the three types of plant tissue?
Describe the function of each.
Epidermis - Cells forming the outer surface of the leaves and of the young plant body.
Vascular tissue - The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These transport fluids and nutrients internally.
Ground tissue - Ground tissue is less differentiated than other tissues. Ground tissue manufactures nutrients by photosynthesis and stores reserve nutrients.
What are stomata?
How do they relate to photosynthesis?
Why are they not open all the time?
What regulates the opening and closing?
-Pores in the epidermis of the leaf or stem of a plant, forming a slit of variable width that allows movement of gases (CO2) in and out of the inter cellular spaces.
-They are not open all the time b/c the plant would lose water
-Guard Cells regulate the opening/closing of the stomata
Leaves are made of what type of cell?
What are these cells packed with?
Plant Cells (Parenchyma Cells)
What is an independent variable? Dependent variable? Control variable/group? Constants?
Independent Variable- Variable you change/test
Dependent Variable- Variable that's a reaction to the change in the Independent Variable
Control Variable/Group- A trail that has nothing modified
Constants- Things that stay the same throughout the different trials
What molecules are cycled between the Calvin Cycle and Light-Dependent Reactions?
ATP and NADPH
Equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Describe the light-independent reaction
Where does it occur?
What are the products and reactants?
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes.
Reactants: ATP, NADPH, and CO2.
Describe the light-dependent reactions.
Where does it occur?
What are the products and reactants?
The light-dependent reactions use light energy to make two molecules needed for the next stage of photosynthesis: the energy storage molecule ATP and the reduced electron carrier NADPH. In plants, the light reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes of organelles called chloroplasts.
Reactants: ADP, NADP+, H2O, Light
Products: Oxygen, ATP, NADPH
What is ATP?
How does it provide energy for biochemical reactions?
-ATP is the molecule of life
-The energy from cellular respiration is stored in the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate groups of ATP.
What are tropisms?
What are the three types?
-A 'tropism' is a growth in response to a stimulus
-phototropism: growth in response to the direction of light
-geotropism: growth in response to the direction of gravity
-hydrotropism: the growth or turning of plant roots toward or away from moisture.
What does active transport require that passive transport does not?
What are meristems? Where they usually found in plants?
meristem: a region of plant tissue, found chiefly at the growing tips of roots and shoots and in the cambium, consisting of actively dividing cells forming new tissue.
Angiosperms (flowering plants)
Vascular plants that have covered seeds.
Group of seed plants that bear their seeds directly on the scale of cones; naked seed
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
Interaction that benefits one species, no effect on the other
The parasite derives its nourishment from a second organism, its host, which is harmed.
An ecological succession that begins in an area where no biotic community previously existed
Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
First species to populate an area during primary succession
a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change drastically.
density dependent factors
A limiting factor of a population wherein large, dense populations are more strongly affected than small, less crowded ones.
Examples: Availability of food, predation, disease, and migration
density independent factors
limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size
Examples: Natural disasters, temperature, sunlight, human activities
What is biological magnification?
a process in which toxins become more concentrated in successive trophic levels of a food web
What is the greenhouse effect?
the trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface.