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44 terms

soc chap 10

STUDY
PLAY
social inequality
describes a condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
ascribed status
a social position assigned to a person by society without regard for his or her unique talents or characteristics
achieved status
a social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts
slavery
a system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by others as property
caste
a heredity rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile
estate system
a system of stratifcation under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services
class system
a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
social mobility
movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
open system
a social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status
closed system
a social system in which there is little or no possibility of individual social mobility
hotrizontal mobility
the movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank
vertical mobility
the movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank
intergenerational mobility
changes in the social position of children relative to their parents
intragenerational mobility
changes in social position within a person's adult life
capitalism
an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits
bourgeoisie
Karl Marx's term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production
proletariat
Karl Marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society
class consciousness
in Karl Marx's view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change
dominant ideology
a set of cultural beliefs and oractices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
false consciousness
a term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
class
a group of people who have a similar level of economic resources
status group
people who have the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class positions
party
the capacity to organize to accomplish some particular goal
cultural capital
our tastes, knowledge, attitudes, language, and ways of thinking that we exchange in interaction with others
prestige
the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society
esteem
the reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation
socioeconomic status (SES)
a measure of class that is based on income, education, occupation, and related variables
income
wages and salaries measured over some period, such as per hour or year
wealth
the total of a person's material assets, including savings, land, stocks, and other types of property, minus his or her debt at a single point in time
absolute poverty
a mininum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below
relative poverty
a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole
life chances
the opportunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
digital divide
the relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low-income groups, racial and ethic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries
stratification
Structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society
Rossides' five-class model to describe U.S. class system:
- Upper class
- Upper-middle class
- Lower-middle class
- Working class
- Lower class
Social relations depend on...
who controls the primary mode of production
Material resources are...
economic resources we own or control
Social resources are...
prestige based on position we occupy and social network connections
Cultural resources are...
our tastes, language, and way of looking at the world
Underclass
Long-term poor who lack training and skills
social stratification
a trait of our society; it is not a reflection of our individual differences
social stratification persists....
over generations
social stratification is controversal....
but variable
social stratification is not just inequality...
it is about beliefs