Upgrade to remove ads
NYSTCE Students with Disabilities CST .
Terms in this set (96)
Panel on Mental Retardation
In 1961, President Kennedy appointed a panel of experts to prepare a national plan for "combating mental retardation."
Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was a cornerstone of President Lyndon B. Johnson's "War on Poverty" (McLaughlin, 1975). ... ESEA is an extensive statute that funds primary and secondary education, emphasizing high standards and accountability. As mandated in the act, funds are authorized for professional development, instructional materials, resources to support educational programs, and the promotion of parental involvement. (QUALITY AND EQUALITY)
Public Law 94-143
The Education for all handicapped Children Act (EHA)
Public Law 94-143. Passed in 1975 and later reauthorized as IDEA. guaranteed a free appropriate public education to each child with a disability.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)
is the federal law that govern the education of children with disabilities.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Federal legislation with the strongest and most direct impact on special ed. The Right to a free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. It requires that students with disabilities be included in the general education classroom only removed with special services if the classroom environment cannot be modified to adequately support their educational progress.
The practice of educating students with disabilities in the general education classroom so they may participate in day-to-day routines alongside students without disabilities. Inclusion treats the general education classroom as the student's primary placement. (LRE and FAPE)
students with disabilities were included in the general education classroom only when their achievement would be near grade level without substantial support.
Through IDEA, the federal government provides states with funding for special ed but in return the states must comply pertain to children from birth to 21. States must conduct child find activities to identify and evaluate children who may have disabilities. Students who may have a disability must be evaluated, at no cost to the parents, for their eligibility for special service. Parents must be in involved in the evaluation process. Either parents or a school professional (teacher) may request an evaluation, but parental consent is required before evaluation can take place.
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) part of IDEA
students with disabilities are entitled to the same types of educational experiences as their peers without disabilities. Schools must provide each child with a disability an education experience that is appropriate to his or her age and abilities at no cost to the parents.
LRE Least Restrictive Environment
Students with disabilities are to be educated in the least restrictive environment, meaning that their educational experiences must be as similar as possible to those of children who do not have a disability. The goal of LRE is for students with disabilities to remain in the general education classroom to the greatest extent possible, with the fewest possible changes to day-to- day routines, and to be removed from regular classes and provided with special services only when the severity of their disability requires doing so in order for them to be educated appropriately.
Continuum of service
allows these students to participate to the greatest extent possible.
IEP individualized Education Plan
Between the ages of 3 and 21, each student with a disability must have an IEP. It describes the child's present level of progress and learning capacity, the short- and long term educational goals for the child, and the accommodations and services which will be provided in order to achieve those goals. It is created by a team typically consisting of the child's parents, a special ed. professional, a general ed. teacher, a representative of the school, and others. The educational objectives described in the IEP must align with state curriculum standards for general education. When the student reaches 16 the IEP must contain a description of the student's goals falling graduation and the transition services needed to achieve those goals.
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
Prior to the age of 3, each child who shows signs of developmental delay must have an IFSP. It is a written document similar to the IEP that focuses on the gmail and the child's natural environment.
The Vocation Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
forbids discrimination against individuals with disabilities.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
helps ensure the privacy of educational records such as IEPs.
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
increases the accountability of schools with respect to the academic progress of students with disabilities.
IDEA, as well as New York State regulations, specify a process for referrals. In order to determine if a child has a disability and requires special ed. services, a referral for evaluation must be made. A referral can be made by parents, school staff, or administrators. Physicians, judicial officers, and students over 18, can make a request for an initial referral too. Parents whose children have not previously received the case of an initial referral, parental consent is required in order for evaluation to proceed.
CSE Committee on special education
The multidisciplinary teams that receives referrals. They are in charge of making arrangements for the evaluation of a student who has been referred. They determine the basis of evaluation results whether the student is eligible for special ed services. they are in charge of developing and implementing an IEP. They review the IEP on an annual basis and modify it as need. They develop a transition plan too.
CPSE Committee on preschool Special Education
For children between the ages of 3 and 5 the team is called.
consists of a set of rules and procedures designed to protect the rights and interest of parents and their children with disabilities. Schools are required to give parents an explanation of the procedural safeguards (parents' rights) when their children are evaluated or re-evaluated.
Refers to the principles that attempt to guarantee the rights of citizens.
Due Process hearings
allow the parents to bring their complaints before an impartial, experienced individual from outside the school district. The hearing are conducted at no cost to parents, although parents are ordinarily responsible for their attorney's fees. Due process hearings can also be requested by schools, as happens sometimes, for example when parents refuse to allow a child to be evaluated for the presence of a disability.
Age of Majority
is the age that a person becomes a legal adult. In many states, including New York, the age of majority is 18. Once a student with a disability has reached the age of majority, the student must receive notice of IEP meetings, consent to evaluations and other IEP content, and otherwise function as their parents once did prior to the student reaching the age of majority.
The purpose of pre referral is to help students who are struggling in the gen ed setting before referring them for special ed. assessment. The team obtains information about the student's strengths and weakness, designs and oversees the implementation of interventions, and evaluates the results of the interventions. If the interventions are not successful, referral for special education assessment will be made.
RTI Response to Intervention
is used as the pre referral process. It is a school-level process that involves screening, monitoring, and responding appropriately. All students revive high quality instruction. students who struggle academically are provided with increasingly intense and individualized instruction. If the student continues to struggle at the final tier, the student will be referred for special education assessment.
the ability to understand language (also known as comprehension) includes the ability to understand speech, written text, and or the elements of sign language.
the ability to express oneself using language (Production) includes the ability to speak, write, or sign.
refers to speech sounds. Each phoneme in a language consists of a distinct sound used to distinguish spoken words in the language. For example, the word sick consists of three phonemes- /s/, /i/, /k/. The English Language contains about 45 phonemes.
refers to the meaning of parts of words, words, sentences and larger units.
refers to the rules that govern the structure of language. Can be divided into syntax and morphology
pertains to rules governing the placement of words in phrases, clauses, and sentences.
refers to rules governing the use of morphemes, or the smallest parts of words that contribute to meaning. Prefixes and suffixes are morphemes.
can be defined as whatever contributes to meaning over and above the literal meaning of the words. (contextual information, differing tones of voices, figurative language, communicative contexts
refers to the system of representing oral language in writing. Rules pertain to spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and the use of hyphens.
Long before children know how to read, they acquire skills and experiences that contribute to later reading development. They enjoy listening to and retelling stories. They realize that certain marks in their environment convey stories and other kinds of information. They acquire concepts of print (words in a picture convey stories, words are printed in an orderly and linear way).
the ability to name the letters of the alphabet and recognize these letters in print.
the understanding that letters represent sound in systematic and predictable ways.
the ability to recognize, discriminate among, and manipulate language sounds such as phonemes and syllables.
sounding out of words
high frequency words (you, the, and).
the ability to read quickly, effortlessly, accurately, and expressively.
They can read more fluently and with greater comprehension. Decoding skills become more advanced, and the number of sight words that they recognize continues to grow. They read with greater fluency and focus more on meaning. There is an improvement in reading comprehension can now be seen in children's ability to infer meaning from context, make predictions about what will happen next in a story, and discuss what they have read.
Reading to Learn
improvements in children's decoding skills, increases in the number of sight words they automatically recognize, and a deeper understanding of the reading process and the properties of texts. More attention is placed on content than to the mechanics of reading.
can identify words by treating words as visual object (not by applying letter-sound associations) Example the word look- the child can read the word look because she remembers that there are eyeballs inside of it.
know some letters and letter-sound associations to decode
applies alphabetic knowledge when decoding. Decodes letter by letter.
consolidate letter patterns. Rather than sound out the letters, children recognize that certain groups of letters function as units. (example ight and tion). Young readers can now recognize diagraphs, constant clusters, syllables, rime, onset, morphemes.
Reading Difficulties Dyslexia
is a learning disability that primarily affects reading. Individuals with dyslexia read at a lower level, given that their intelligence is normal. Difficulty reading familiar words, inability to decode unfamiliar words, difficulty segmenting words into phonemes, difficulty identifying or creating rhymes. Seeing letters or words in reverse. seeing letters move or blur. Dysfluency following a sequence of instruction. Poor spelling.
Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities
IDEA defines Infants and Toddlers with disabilities as children between birth and 3 who are experiencing developmental delays in one or more of the following areas: cognitive development, physical development, social/emotional, communication, and adaptive development.
a developmental disability, generally detectable before the age of 3, that affects communication, social interaction, and learning May show language delays, unusual speech patterns, aversion to eye contact and touch, repetitive behaviors, and resistance to change in daily routines.
Both hearing and visual impairments usually occurs at birth (congenital) but may be acquired through illness or injury.
extreme hearing impairment. Congenital or adventitious
demonstrates characteristics over a period of time. Inability to learn that cannot be attributed to other facts, such as intellectual or sensory deficits, or health problems, an inability to build or sustain satisfactory personal relationships with others; feelings or behaviors that ordinarily inappropriate, pervasive unhappiness or depression; and and a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears related to personal problems or problems at school. (Ex. Anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and depression).
impairment in hearing that undermines educational performance but is not severe enough to be classified as deafness. Can be congenital/ adventitious.
intellectual ability that is below average with adaptive behavior- which affects educational performance. (Ex. Mental retardation- and impairment in social competence and independence. Down Syndrome)
Combo of disabilities that is so severe the student cant benefit sufficiently from programs or services that are designed just for one disability
Musculoskeletal problems (Cerebral palsy, Polio, and amputations)
Other health impairments
health problems affecting strength, energy, or alertness that impacts the student's educational performance (ex. Leukemia, epilepsy, diabetes, asthma, lupus, sickle cell anemia)
problems with the ability to comprehend or produce information when performing academic task (Dyslexia, dyscalculia, and minimal brain dysfunction) "Specific LD" indicated that this disability is restricted to particular school subjects or tasks. Only impaired in a certain skill
Speech or Language impairment
communication disorders that impact the students educational performance (articulation disorders, stuttering and mutism).
Traumatic brain injury
an acquired injury to the brain that undermines the student's educational performance. Depending on the severity of the injury, traumatic brain injury may have impairments in physical, behavioral, cognitive, social, and or emotional function.
visual problems even after surgery or corrective lenses.
Learning and instructional strategies- how do students with disabilities learn?
Develop appropriate instruction and curricular modifications
1. maintain an academic focus
2. holding high expectations for students' academic performance and behavior
3. making students accountable for their work and classroom behavior.
4. creating a positive, cooperative classroom atmosphere.
5. differentiating instruction accord to individual student characteristics.
6. monitoring student behavior and engagement.
administered to all students in a particular school or grade. typically carried out in the beginning of the year. may also be carried out on an individual basis.
administered to individual students in some states before referring them for special ed. They typically provide more info than screenings. Can be used to determine which instructional modifications will help and if so are they successful.
Are administered to individual students who may need additional support. In some cases, diagnostic assessments are used because screening has suggested the presence of a disability (in which case the diagnostic assessment may function as a prereferral assessment) In other cases, it is used because the student has already been referred for special ed. and more info is needed. They provide more in-depth understanding of skills and instructional needs than screening do. Determines strengths and weakness. In some cases, it is also designed to identify the nature of the student's disability. May be a standardized test, but determination of an eligibility for services will consist of info gathered from many sources.
conducted frequently over time, and it focuses on one specific academic area (reading fluency) or behavioral dimension (impulse control). Could be formal or informal given before or after special ed services. (curriculum- based measurement).
Student achievement at the end of school year or time period. Evaluation. State-mandated achievement test that students of certain grade levels must take in several areas at the end of the year.
They are not standardized, norm-referenced, not MC. They tend to be defined by student expression based on behaviors, products.
descriptions of student behavior in natural settings. Describe behavior as objectively as possible (EX. checklist, the presence or absence of a specific behavior- talking out of turn, leaving one's seat at inappropriate times. Rating scales- note the extent to which behavior is expressed, the extent of engagement in class activities. Duration records-note the amount of time the student spends engaged in a particular behavior (talking when inappropriate). TIme sampling records- used to note the number of times the student engages in a particular behavior during a particular time period (taps pencil in math). Anecdotal records- narrative descriptions of behaviors in particular settings (ex. the student's behavior during one class period)
the student's functioning in different environment. Identify environments in which the student functions with greater or lesser difficulty to understand what contributes to these differences in functioning and how to draw useful implications for INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING
student performance on real-life task carried out in a real world setting (or stimulation) not to do well on test but also to acquire knowledge and skills that can be applied to life situations.
a collection of work produced by student over time. Gauge student effort, progress, and achievement through many different kinds of work produced in a particular class or specific theme.
allows students with disabilities to participate on equal basis with peers. They must not change the content of the test. Must not substitute knowledge or abilities the student has not obtained.
involves changes to the format of information presented in the assessment
- increased font and response bubbles
-highlight key phrases in instructions
-sign language interpreter
-administration of assessment by audiotape
For visual or auditory impairment, difficulty processing written text, reading disability.
involves changes to the format by which the student provides responses to the assessment.
- use of a scribe to record response
-audiotaping student's response
-response forms with added cues
-student uses computer to record response
-allowing students to take notes before responding
May be needed if a student has a physical or cognitive impairment that prevents student from using a writing implement.
involves changes to the location and or conditions of the assessment.
-preferential seating during assessment
-small group in seperate setting
-individual sperate setting
-minimal distraction setting .
May be needed if a student has a severe attention problem, perceptual problems, or is distracting other
involves changes to the timing and scheduling of assessments.
-complete on another occasion
-complete on a particular time of day
-components are varied
-eat specific foods
may be needed if a student has a medical condition that requires distributed testing and extreme anxiety.
provides results for an individual student that are understood by comparison to norms -students peer group. the individual's performance level compared to others of the same age. Are standardized- percentile ranking (multiple choice).
Criterion- Referenced Assessment
compares the individual's performance to a standard or criterion "high-stakes" achievement test that all states administer in order to monitor student progress. Are standardized in how they are administered and scored. Some determine if a student has met a pre-determined criterion. Outcome Assessments are almost always criterion-referenced. (MC)
Compares an individual's score at one point in time with the same individuals score at some other point or points in time. The individual is compared to himself. May or may not be standardized. Progress monitoring assessments are often individual-referenced assessment. (ex. Running record).
Performance Based Assessment
Student must exhibit some behavior or create some product requiring integration of knowledge an skill. A musical performance, a demonstration, an essay, a project, or a portfolio
the extent to which an assessment measures what it is intended to measure
the extent to which scores in an assessment are related to some criterion measure. When is the criterion measure obtained. Concurrent the criterion measure is administered at the same time as the assessment is or predictive validity- the criterion measure is administered at some point in the future. Concurrent validity is important of new measures. A new test and an established test may be administered to the same group in order to compare scores. The new test will be validated to the extent that those scores are similar. Predictive validity is important to the determination of whether an assessment provides useful information about future performance in both education and vocational settings. Often determined quantitatively
refers to the extent to which an assessment measures some identifiable content. Such as curriculum standards or clearly defined behaviors. Requires expert judgment. You need to examine the content of an assessment in order to determine the extent of its alignment with the material or skills being tested. Something observable.
the extent to which an assessment accurately measures some kind of construct, like intelligence, motivation, engagement. How well an assessment taps into an underlying construct that cannot be observed directly. Construct validity is especially important to consider when an assessment is used with students who have or may have a disability.
the consistency of assessment results
Results will be the same upon repeated administrations of the same assessment especially important when used to monitor the progress of students for whom this form of reliability may be diminished owing to a disability (students with attention problems or medical problems that may have flucuations in energy). Test-retest reliability may be lower than for others, results must be interpreted cautiously.
observers agree on assessment results. Useful when assessment and responses are complex, ambiguous, or require subjective interpretation (ie. judging essays, counting the number of disruptive behaviors, musical performance.) It is especially important in diagnosing a student with a particular disability.
Equivalent form reliability
alternative forms of the same assessment yield the same results. When the test has multiple forms.
Eligibility for services
Initital assessment must include:
- a physical exam
- a psychological evaluation
- a social history
- observations of the student in the current education settings
- other assessments as appropriate (vocational assessments)
CSC determines eligibility by
-reviewing the referral
-review background information
-develop an evaluation plan indicating what test and other forms of assessment will be used to evaluate the child.
-share the evaluation plan with parents and obtain consent
- arrange for the student to be assessed
-evaluate the results of assessment, along with other info, to determine if the student has a disability, and if so what special ed and related services will he or she need.
- generate a written report of findings
-meet with parents and determine eligibility
- the results of the committee's evaluation are used to develop IEP
Info gather and decision making
a systematic process. SETT framework. Students. Environment, Tasks, and Tools. used to identify supports and services for students with disabilities.
assessing individual student progress. Determines the extent to which instruction is effective (overall and in specific areas) Determines the extent of each student's progress (overall and in specific areas). Indicates how to modify instruction or provide other support for students whos progress is inadequate.
Curriculum bases measure (CBM)
provides information about student mastery of the general education curriculum. Such assessments are typically criterion- referenced. In special education, a prominent example of CBA is CBM (curriculum-based measurement) an approach to monitoring student progress that is relatively sensitive to change in performance over time. CBM is based on the collection of sample students performance on a specific task or test. Samples are obtained frequently (1-3 times a week) and are brief (1-5 minutes).
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Students With Disabilities CST NYSTCE (060)
Students with Disabilities CST
NYSTCE Students with Disabilities CST
Students With Disabilities CST NYSTCE (060)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Introduction to Assessment and Evaluation in Speci…
Special Education - TEXES
Praxis II- 5545 Special Ed Core Knowledge & Severe…
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Business & Crime
Westward Expansion Test 2nd half
anatomy cellular respiration
Business Strategies Ch 1-5 Part 1