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21 terms

Parts of a cell

Parts of a eukaryotic cell (animal and plant) and their functions
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Flagellum
locomtion organelle present in some animal cells; composed of a cluster of microtubules within an extension of the plasma membrane (not found in plant cells)
Centrosome
region where the cell's microtubules are initiated; contains a pair of centrioles (not found in plant cells)
Cytoskeleton
reinforces cell's shape, functions in cell movement; components are made of proteins
Microfilaments
component of the Cytoskeleton; cell motility/shape/division; cytoplasmic streaming; muscle contraction; cell shape
Intermediate Filaments
component of the Cytoskeleton; fomation of nuclear lamina; anchorage of nucleus/organelles; cell shape
Microtubules
component of the Cytoskeleton; organelle/cell motility; chromosome movement; cell shape
Microvilli
projections that increase the cell's surface area
Peroxisome
organelle with various specialized functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water
Mitochondrion
organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated
Lysosome
digestive organelle where macromolecules are hyrolyzed (not found in plant cells)
Golgi Apparatus
organell active in sythesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products
Ribosomes
complexes that make proteins; free in cytosol or bound to rough ER or nuclear envelope
Plasma Membrane
mambrane enclosing the cell
Chromatin
material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible as individual chromosomes in a dividing cell
Nucleolus
structure involved in production of ribosomes; a nucleus has one or more nucleoli
Nuclear Envelope
double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores; continuous with ER
Endoplamic Reticulum
network of membranous sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes; has rough and smooth regions
Cell Wall
outer layer the maintains cell's shape and protects cell from mechanical damage; made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and protein (not found in animal cells)
Plasmodesmata
channels through cell walls that connects the cytoplasms of adjacent cells (not found in animal cells)
Chloroplast
phtosyntheitc organelle; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules (not found in animal cells)
Central Vacuole
prominent organelle in older plant cells; functions include storage, breakdown of waste, hydrolysis of macromolecules; enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth (not found in animal cells)