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APUSH Mrs. Brown

west africa squadron

1808, british royal navy force formed to enforce the abolition of the slave trade in 1807


slave drivers who employed the lash to brutally break the souls of strong willed slaves

black belt

region of the deep south with the highest concentration of slaves


call and response style of preaching that melded Christian and African traditions

peculiar insitution

slavery in the south

nat turner's rebellion

1831, virginia slave revolt that resulted in the deaths of 60 whites and raised fears among white southerners of further uprisings


1839, spanish slave sip dramatically seized off the coast of cuba by the enslaved africans aboard

american colonization society

reflecting the focus of early abolitionists on transporting freed blacks back to africa, the organization established liberia, a west-african settlement intended as a haven for emancipated slaves


west african nation founded in 1822 as a haven for freed blacks, fifteen thousand of whom made their way back across the atlantic by the 1860

the liberatior

1831-1865, antislavery newspaper published by william lloyd garrison who called for the immediate emancipation of all slaves

american anti-slavery society

1833-1870, abolitionist society founded by william lloyd garrison, who advocated the immediate abolition of slavery

appeal to the colored citizens of the world

1829, incendiary abolitionist track advocating the violent overthrow of slavery

narrative of the life of frederick douglass

1845, vivid autobiography of the escaped slave and renowned abolitionist frederick douglass

soujourner truth

freed black woman who fought for black emancipation and womens rights

mason-dixon line

originally drawn by surveyors to resolve the boundaries between maryland, delaware, pennsylvania, and virginia in the 1760s, it came to symbolize the north-south divide over slavery

gag resolution

prohibited debate or action of antislavery appeals

popular sovereignty

notion that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery

general lewis cass

a veteran of the war of 1812 as their candidate for presidency who was chosen by the democrats and supported slavery

zachary taylor

the whigs chose him as their candidate, he didn't have an official stance of slavery

free soil party

1848-1854, antislavery party in the 1848 and 1852 elections that opposed the extension of slavery into the territories, arguing that the presence of slavery would limit opportunities for free laborers

election of 1848

general lewis cass vs zachary taylor, taylor won

california gold rush

1849, inflow of thousands of miners to northern california after news reports of the discovery of gold at sutters mill in january of 1848 had spread around the world by the end of that year

underground railroad

informal network of volunteers that helped runaway slaves escape from the south and reach freesoil canada

harriet tubman

a conductor of the underground railroad who rescued hundreds of slaves

seventh of march speech

1850, daniel websters impassioned address urging the north to support the compromise of 1850

immortal trio

henry clay, john calhoun, and daniel webster

henry clay

the great pacificator, proposed a series of compromises

john calhoun

the great nullifier, proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the south its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance

daniel webster

proposed that all reasonable compromises should be made with the south and that a new fugitive slave law be formed

william h seward

senator of ny, antislavery and argued that god's moral law was higher than the constitution

compromise of 1850

admitted california as a free state, opened new mexxico and utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade in washington dc and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law

millard fillmore

1850, president taylor died and vice president took over signing a series of compromises

fugitive slave law

passed as part of the compromise of 1850, it set high penalties for anyone who aided escaped slaves and compelled all law enforcement officers to participate in retrieving runaways

franklin pierce

democratic convention of 1852, the democrats chose who for the candidate for presidency

winfield scott

1852, the whigs chose who as their candidate for presidency

election of 1852

franklin pierce won

clayton-bulwer treaty

1850, signed by great britain and the US, it provided that the two nations would jointly protect the neutrality of central america and that neither power would seek to fortify or exclusively control any future isthmian waterway

ostend manifesto

1854, secret franklin pierce administration proposal to purchase or to wrest militarily cuba from spain

opium war

1839-1842, war between britain and china over trading rights, particularly britain's desire to continue selling opium to chinese traders

treaty of wanghia

1844, signed by the us and china, it assured the US the same trading concessions granted to other powers, greatly expanding america's trade with the chinese

treaty of kanagawa

1845, ended japan's two hundred year period of economic isolation, establishing an american consulate in japan and securing american coaling rights in japanese ports

gadsden purchase

1853, acquired additional land from mexico for 10 million to facilitate the construction of southern transcontinental railroad

kansas-nebraska act

1854, proposed the issue of slavery be decided by popular sovereignty in the kansas-nebraska territories, thus revoking the 1820 missouri compromise (Stephen douglass)

the impending crisis of the south

1857, antislavery tract written by white southerner hinton r helper, arguing that nonslaveholding whites actually suffered most from slave economy

new england emigrant aid company

founded 1854, organization created to facilitate the migration of free laborers to kansas in order to prevent the establishment of slavery in the territory

lecompton constitution

1857, proposed kansas constitution, whose ratification was unfairly rigged so as to guarantee slavery in the territory

john brown

abolitionist who in may of 1856 in response to the pro-slavery events in lawrence killed 5 men at pottawatomie creek

james buchanan

democrat, succeeded pierce as president of us, had a strong southern influence and approved of the lecompton constitution

stephen douglass

senator who was strongly opposed to the document and campaigned against it

bleeding kansas

1856-1861, civil war in kansas over the issue of slavery in the territory, fought intermittently until 1862, when it merged with the wider national civil war

charles sumner

gave a provoking speech condemning proslavery men, he personally insulted senator andrew butler of south carolina, 2 days later butler's nephew preston brooks beat sumner with a cane to unconsciousness

james buchanan

democrats chose who as their presidential candidate to run in the election fo 1856

captain john c fremont

republicans chose who as their presidential candidate to run in the election of 1856

american party

aka know nothing party, formed by protestants who were alarmed by the increase of immigrants from ireland and germany

election of 1856

james buchanan became president

dred scott vs stanford

1857, supreme court decisions that extended federal protection to slavery by rulign that congress didnt have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory

dred scott

a slave of 5 years who was denied freedom when moving to a free state

panic of 1857

financial crash brought on by gold-fueled inflation, overspeculation, and excess grain production

tariff of 1857

lowered duties on imports to about 20% in response to a high treasury surplus and pressure from southern farmers

lincoln douglas debates

1858, series of debates between abe lincoln and stephen douglas during the us senate race in illinois

freeport question

1858, raised during one of the lincoln douglas debates by lincoln, who asked whether the court or the people should decide the future of slavery in the territories

freeport doctrine

1858, declared that since slavery couldnt exist without laws to protect it, territorial legislatures, not the supreme court, would have the final say on the slavery question

harpers ferry

federal arsenal in virginia seized by abolitionist john brown in 1859

the constitutional union party

1860, formed by moderate whigs and know-nothings in an effort to elect a compromise candidate and avert a sectional crisis

confederate states of america

1861-1865, government established after seven southern states seceded from the union

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