65 terms

Ch 16, 18 and 19

APUSH Mrs. Brown
west africa squadron
1808, british royal navy force formed to enforce the abolition of the slave trade in 1807
slave drivers who employed the lash to brutally break the souls of strong willed slaves
black belt
region of the deep south with the highest concentration of slaves
call and response style of preaching that melded Christian and African traditions
peculiar insitution
slavery in the south
nat turner's rebellion
1831, virginia slave revolt that resulted in the deaths of 60 whites and raised fears among white southerners of further uprisings
1839, spanish slave sip dramatically seized off the coast of cuba by the enslaved africans aboard
american colonization society
reflecting the focus of early abolitionists on transporting freed blacks back to africa, the organization established liberia, a west-african settlement intended as a haven for emancipated slaves
west african nation founded in 1822 as a haven for freed blacks, fifteen thousand of whom made their way back across the atlantic by the 1860
the liberatior
1831-1865, antislavery newspaper published by william lloyd garrison who called for the immediate emancipation of all slaves
american anti-slavery society
1833-1870, abolitionist society founded by william lloyd garrison, who advocated the immediate abolition of slavery
appeal to the colored citizens of the world
1829, incendiary abolitionist track advocating the violent overthrow of slavery
narrative of the life of frederick douglass
1845, vivid autobiography of the escaped slave and renowned abolitionist frederick douglass
soujourner truth
freed black woman who fought for black emancipation and womens rights
mason-dixon line
originally drawn by surveyors to resolve the boundaries between maryland, delaware, pennsylvania, and virginia in the 1760s, it came to symbolize the north-south divide over slavery
gag resolution
prohibited debate or action of antislavery appeals
popular sovereignty
notion that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery
general lewis cass
a veteran of the war of 1812 as their candidate for presidency who was chosen by the democrats and supported slavery
zachary taylor
the whigs chose him as their candidate, he didn't have an official stance of slavery
free soil party
1848-1854, antislavery party in the 1848 and 1852 elections that opposed the extension of slavery into the territories, arguing that the presence of slavery would limit opportunities for free laborers
election of 1848
general lewis cass vs zachary taylor, taylor won
california gold rush
1849, inflow of thousands of miners to northern california after news reports of the discovery of gold at sutters mill in january of 1848 had spread around the world by the end of that year
underground railroad
informal network of volunteers that helped runaway slaves escape from the south and reach freesoil canada
harriet tubman
a conductor of the underground railroad who rescued hundreds of slaves
seventh of march speech
1850, daniel websters impassioned address urging the north to support the compromise of 1850
immortal trio
henry clay, john calhoun, and daniel webster
henry clay
the great pacificator, proposed a series of compromises
john calhoun
the great nullifier, proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the south its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance
daniel webster
proposed that all reasonable compromises should be made with the south and that a new fugitive slave law be formed
william h seward
senator of ny, antislavery and argued that god's moral law was higher than the constitution
compromise of 1850
admitted california as a free state, opened new mexxico and utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade in washington dc and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law
millard fillmore
1850, president taylor died and vice president took over signing a series of compromises
fugitive slave law
passed as part of the compromise of 1850, it set high penalties for anyone who aided escaped slaves and compelled all law enforcement officers to participate in retrieving runaways
franklin pierce
democratic convention of 1852, the democrats chose who for the candidate for presidency
winfield scott
1852, the whigs chose who as their candidate for presidency
election of 1852
franklin pierce won
clayton-bulwer treaty
1850, signed by great britain and the US, it provided that the two nations would jointly protect the neutrality of central america and that neither power would seek to fortify or exclusively control any future isthmian waterway
ostend manifesto
1854, secret franklin pierce administration proposal to purchase or to wrest militarily cuba from spain
opium war
1839-1842, war between britain and china over trading rights, particularly britain's desire to continue selling opium to chinese traders
treaty of wanghia
1844, signed by the us and china, it assured the US the same trading concessions granted to other powers, greatly expanding america's trade with the chinese
treaty of kanagawa
1845, ended japan's two hundred year period of economic isolation, establishing an american consulate in japan and securing american coaling rights in japanese ports
gadsden purchase
1853, acquired additional land from mexico for 10 million to facilitate the construction of southern transcontinental railroad
kansas-nebraska act
1854, proposed the issue of slavery be decided by popular sovereignty in the kansas-nebraska territories, thus revoking the 1820 missouri compromise (Stephen douglass)
the impending crisis of the south
1857, antislavery tract written by white southerner hinton r helper, arguing that nonslaveholding whites actually suffered most from slave economy
new england emigrant aid company
founded 1854, organization created to facilitate the migration of free laborers to kansas in order to prevent the establishment of slavery in the territory
lecompton constitution
1857, proposed kansas constitution, whose ratification was unfairly rigged so as to guarantee slavery in the territory
john brown
abolitionist who in may of 1856 in response to the pro-slavery events in lawrence killed 5 men at pottawatomie creek
james buchanan
democrat, succeeded pierce as president of us, had a strong southern influence and approved of the lecompton constitution
stephen douglass
senator who was strongly opposed to the document and campaigned against it
bleeding kansas
1856-1861, civil war in kansas over the issue of slavery in the territory, fought intermittently until 1862, when it merged with the wider national civil war
charles sumner
gave a provoking speech condemning proslavery men, he personally insulted senator andrew butler of south carolina, 2 days later butler's nephew preston brooks beat sumner with a cane to unconsciousness
james buchanan
democrats chose who as their presidential candidate to run in the election fo 1856
captain john c fremont
republicans chose who as their presidential candidate to run in the election of 1856
american party
aka know nothing party, formed by protestants who were alarmed by the increase of immigrants from ireland and germany
election of 1856
james buchanan became president
dred scott vs stanford
1857, supreme court decisions that extended federal protection to slavery by rulign that congress didnt have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory
dred scott
a slave of 5 years who was denied freedom when moving to a free state
panic of 1857
financial crash brought on by gold-fueled inflation, overspeculation, and excess grain production
tariff of 1857
lowered duties on imports to about 20% in response to a high treasury surplus and pressure from southern farmers
lincoln douglas debates
1858, series of debates between abe lincoln and stephen douglas during the us senate race in illinois
freeport question
1858, raised during one of the lincoln douglas debates by lincoln, who asked whether the court or the people should decide the future of slavery in the territories
freeport doctrine
1858, declared that since slavery couldnt exist without laws to protect it, territorial legislatures, not the supreme court, would have the final say on the slavery question
harpers ferry
federal arsenal in virginia seized by abolitionist john brown in 1859
the constitutional union party
1860, formed by moderate whigs and know-nothings in an effort to elect a compromise candidate and avert a sectional crisis
confederate states of america
1861-1865, government established after seven southern states seceded from the union