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Module 2 advanced patho immune_ Infectious Disease
Terms in this set (77)
Immunity mediated by cells and proteins that are always present and in place to fight against microbes
Immunity that is normally silent but become activated and generate potent neutralizing agents to eliminate microbes
Adaptive immune response that is mediated by antibodies that are produced by B lymphocytes
Adaptive Immunity mediated by T lymphocytes that kill invading organisms
Cell mediated immunity
What immune cells does bone marrow produce?
B cell lymphocytes
Mediators of humoral immunity
Wbcs that travel to sites of infection to engulf microbes, these are regulated by T cells
Organs of the lymphoid system
Thymus. Bone marrow. Lymph nodes. Spleen.
Cells that are specialized to capture microbial antigens to display these to lymphocytes
Antigen presenting cells.
Microorganisms capable of causing disease
Human or animal invaded and colonized by a pathogen
Microorganism living inside a host. Does not always mean infection is present
Term means varying disease causing potential
Source of a pathogenic organism. Doesn't always mean this source is suffering from infection
A living being able to transmit infectious organisms to a host
Vector. Mosquitoes. Ticks. Fleas. Flys.
Number of new infections in a population
Number of active ongoing cases of infection in a population at any given time
A disease is considered __________ if the incidence and prevalence is relatively stable
An abrupt increase in the number of an infection in a geographical location
Global spread of infection
Microbiota that are in the body and do not cause infection when in their respective areas
Can normal flora cause disease and infect other parts of the body?
Infection occurring secondary to immunosuppression
Infection acquired in a medical setting
Bacteria that stains purple. Thick cell wall made of peptidoglycan
Bacteria that stains pink. Thinner layered cell wall with less petidoglycan
How does a virus work?
It enters a human cell and reprograms it to synthesize viral particles
Immune cells that release histamine in allergic responses
Term used to describe WBCs migrating towards bacteria
When HIV attaches to a host cell what material is released into the hosts cytoplasm?
Term used to describe RNAs conversion into DNA
Produces and secretes antibodies
Bacterial or foreign body proteins that trigger production of antibodies
Cells that attack and kill cancer cells
Cytotoxic T cells
Term used when WBCs squeeze thru endothelial cells in the blood vessels to the site of infection
The secretion of antibodies by B cells provides______ immunity
Immune globulins found in mothers milk
AIDS attacks and destroys what type of immune cells?
CD4 T cells
Precursors of macrophages are called what?
The immune response is terminated or decreased by what cells?
Suppressor B and T cells
This cell lyses cells that have been infected with viruses
Helper Killer T cells
When a B cell encounters an antigen it divides rapidly and produces ________
Which type of surface marker is present on every nucleated cell in the body?
Provide an accelerated immune response upon second exposure to an antigen
Disease when a persons immune system attacks its own normal tissues
What do immune globulins contain?
Two light chains and two heavy chains
Major function of B cells
Poisons produces by bacteria
Cancer causing agent
The only virus known to attack the human immune system and directly destroy T cells
Most effective way of controlling infectious diseases within a population
What vector carries Lyme disease
Causes spongiform encephalopathy
Molecules present on every cell of the body and acts as labels of self
Major histocompatibility molecules
Accounts for 80 percent of all antibodies. Works by coating antigens and speeding up their destruction by phagocytosis
Antibody that triggers release of histamine. Responsible for symptoms of allergic reactions
A harmless antigen that, in some individuals causes the body to become overly active
Antibodies received from mother to fetus
What happens naturally when the body fights off infection. Or can occur with vaccination
Cells implicated in transplant rejection
Cytotoxic T cells
Mediates the local inflammatory response including activated macrophages, natural killer cells, and CD8+ T cells.
b cells differentiate into these cells to produce antibodies
Lab test used to detect lupus
What areas does the HSV attack?
Dorsal root ganglia
Misfolded protein capable of causing disease
Immunizations work by--------
Introducing particles of microbes into the body to stimulate production of antibodies (vaccines are not antibodies themselves)
Main routes of transmission for HIV
Homosexual sex. Heterosexual sex. Intravenous drug use with contaminated needles. Mother to fetus or infant. Blood transfusion. Clotting factors used in hemophilia. Blood transfusions.
Number one way to prevent the spread of infectious disease and infections in the healthcare setting
Proper hand washing and decontamination techniques
a potentially fatal immune reaction consisting of a positive feedback loop between cytokines and white blood cells, with highly elevated levels of various cytokines
3 main types of T cells
Helper. Killer. And suppressor T cells
Important things to know about bacteria.
They are prokaryotes. Contain a cell wall but no enveloped nucleus. Can be extra cellar or intercellular. Gram neg or gram positive. Aerobic or anaerobic.
Fungal microbes that cause superficial skin and nail infections
Ex apples of protozoa
Plasmodium. trichomonas. entamoeba histolytica. Giardia lamblia.
Examples of ectoplarasites
Lice. Fleas. Ticks. Mites.
How does vertical transmission occur?
From mother to fetus.
What is a major determinant of tissue tropism in regards to virus entry into cells?
The presence of viral receptors on host cells
Besides infection or death what can happen to virally infected cells?
The cells can cause viral transformation that may lead to benign or malignant tumor cells
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