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AP Government Chapter 5 Vocabulary. (Government by the People 22nd Edition)


Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.

political socialization

The process-most notably in families and schools-by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.


The study of the characteristics of populations.

political predisposition

A characteristic of individuals that is predictive of political behavior.

reinforcing cleavages

Divisions within society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogeneous or similar.

cross-cutting cleavages

Divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different.

manifest destiny

A notion held by nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific.


A grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance.


A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.

gender gap

The difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and of women.


Conservative Christians who as a group have become more active in politics in the last two decades and were especially influential in the 2000 presidential election.

gross domestic product (GDP)

The total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services.

socioeconomic status (SES)

A division of population based on occupation, income, and education.

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