In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge photographed a galloping horse, and discovered that
galloping horses occasionally have all four hooves off the ground.
The supervision by one individual or group over the artistic expression of another individual or group is known as
The creation of a photographic body of work around an event, place, or culture is known as
A major difference between the work of a "pure" or "straight" photographer, such as Alfred Stieglitz, and the work of a documentary photographer, such as Dorothea Lange, is
the different intentions of each photographer.
________ is closely associated with Alfred Stieglitz's assertion that for photography to be an art, it should be true to its own nature.
The Farm Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
paid photographers to document the Great Depression.
A daguerreotype was an early photographic method created using a
copper plate covered with silver iodine.
Dada collage artist Hannah Höch used "found" photographs to express
all of these: artistic composition; the overwhelming experience of the mechanized city; and disgust with a civilization that allowed the slaughter of World War I.
One of the most celebrated 19th-century artists, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, created posters for the famous dance hall called
the Moulin Rouge.
Although symbols convey information and embody ideas,
they have no meaning in themselves; their meaning is invented by cultural use; and the ideas they embody may change radically with time.
The ________ first made it possible to devise a notice that could be reproduced in large numbers and distributed widely.
Which graphic design team developed the familiar set of symbols used today to communicate information across language barriers to international travelers?
Cook and Shanosky
According to the author, graphic design as we know it today has its roots in two developments. They are
the printing press and the Industrial Revolution.
Cassidy Curtis's Graffiti Archaeology is organized by ________ to effectively display its subject.
location and time
The video about the Audi TT sedan by designers Matt Pyke at Universal Everything and Karsten Schmidt at PostSpectacular
used a programming language called Processing; never actually showed the car; and did not require production work after it was originally shot.
The carving method
is all of these: a subtractive process, more aggressive than modeling, and more direct than casting.
Relief sculpture is
all of these: not meant to be viewed in the round, not finished on all sides, and often used to decorate architecture.
Which of the following concepts conceives of a space and everything in it as a work of art?
Sculptors will often create a "sketch" out of ________ to test ideas before proceeding to their medium of choice.
Contrapposto (meaning counter poise or counterbalance) was developed by ________ as a pose for sculptures of the human figure.
________ is a sculptural process of bringing together individual pieces, segments, or objects to form a sculpture.
Wood is not very durable because
all of these are the case: cold and heat distort it; water rots it; and insects can eat it away.
Although the chemical composition of ________ changes when exposed to extreme heat, ________ doesn't change chemically when its pliability is altered by heat.
The ancient Olmecs of Mesoamerica prized ________ for its translucence, which they associated with rainwater.
An archaeologist asked ________ to reconstruct an entire pot from a broken piece he had found, thus launching her career and the revival of Pueblo pottery.
Using a steel framework with masonry sheathing, the ________, designed by Louis Sullivan, is thought by many to be the first genuinely modern building.
Built for the World's Fair in 1889, the ________ was an early experiment in iron construction.
The ability of a material to span horizontal distances with a minimum of support is called
Built almost 2000 years ago, the ________ is an enduring testament to the Roman use of the arch.
Pont du Gard at Nîmes
Fallingwater (the Kaufmann House in Bear Run, Pennsylvania) is a prime example of the "organic" architecture of
Frank Lloyd Wright.
The International style emphasizes
all of these: clean lines, geometric form, and avoidance of superficial decoration.
The two basic families of structural systems in architecture are
the shell and the skeleton-and-skin.
Builders of Gothic cathedrals reinforced the walls of their architecture from the outside with
both piers and flying buttresses.
The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian styles of columns were developed by the Greeks in the ________ centuries B.C.E., respectively.
7th, 6th, and 4th
When a large hall is built using post-and-lintel construction methods, the resulting "virtual forest of columns" is called a
The chances that a work of art from ancient times will be found or preserved are greatly increased if
All these answers are correct.
To compensate for the natural visual distortion in which tall columns appear to bend inward, the Greeks gave them a slight bulge, which is known as
In Egyptian art, the convention of representing social importance by size - for example, where the pharaoh is shown much larger than his subjects - is known as
The earliest-known writing system from which a recorded language developed was the invention of
Although bronze was the favored material for freestanding sculpture in Greece, most bronze statues have not survived, because
they were melted down to make weapons and other objects.
The mummy of Artemidoros, from Fayum, shows the influence of the ________ culture(s).
Egyptian, Greek, and Roman
Romans could watch gladiators fight to the death, along with other sporting events, at the
Three majors cultures that preceded the Greeks in and around the Aegean Sea were the ________ cultures.
Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean
A true arch was developed by ________ architects long before the Romans came up with the idea.
The cross-shaped floor plan of a church is formed by the combined shapes of the nave and the
The mosaic Christ as the Sun exemplifies early Christian artists' appropriation of ________ iconography.
both Greek and Roman
Unlike their Greek and Roman predecessors, Byzantine artists preferred
a flattened, abstracted style of art.
Architects of Romanesque churches began installing ________ around the apse, which allowed the overflow of pilgrims to circulate freely around the interior of the church.
The art and architecture of the high Middle Ages is generally divided into two periods, the ________ and the ________.
One of the effects of the Renaissance was to change the status of artists in Europe from
skilled crafts workers to intellectuals.
The era known as the High Renaissance encompasses a time period of about ________ years.
________ organization, as seen in Masaccio's Trinity with the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors, was a popular device among Renaissance artists of Italy.
The Isenheim Altarpiece, with its gruesome details of Christ's flesh wounds, originally hung in
a hospital for patients with skin disease.
The Baroque painting Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes depicts a story from
In Baroque architecture, wall surfaces often protrude into the viewer's space. In Baroque painting, this same effect is created through the use of
Unlike Baroque art from Catholic countries, Dutch Baroque art focused upon
all of these: the community, business life, and the family and home.
A work of art that uses a tragic Roman tale to arouse feelings of patriotism, self-sacrifice, and civic virtues in its viewers is
The Oath of the Horatii.
Which artists intentionally used their work to shape the public's view of prominent figures?
Vigée-Lebrun and David
The term New York School refers to a postwar art movement that
was a convenient way to lump together the Abstract Expressionists.
The Guerrilla Girls use posters and on-site appearances to
bring attention to gender inequalities in the art world.
One of the ideas behind Postmodernism is pluralism, which proposes that art
can take many directions at the same time, all of them equally valid.
The term action painting refers to the fact that this new type of painting
traced the actions of the painter.
Minimalism, a trend that coexisted with Pop, emphasized a continuation of the exploration of nonrepresentation and the idea that a painting or sculpture is primarily
a physical object.
Early Conceptualists reacted to the burgeoning art market by
attempting to eliminate the art object.
In Joseph Kosuth's One and Three Chairs, the viewer is presented with
three ways of documenting an idea.
A Neo-Dada artist who made art from "found" materials and images and named his new art form "combine paintings" is
The first national art museum opened in 1793. This museum, still in operation today, is
the Louvre in Paris.
Which art movement was directly influenced by Sigmund Freud's theories of the unconscious?
In their paintings, the Impressionists often focused on
scenes of leisure involving the middle class.
A major influence upon European culture of the 19th century, one that gave rise to an expanding middle class, was
the Industrial Revolution.
Edouard Manet considered the annual Salon of Paris to be an artist's only true "field of battle." What was the Salon of Paris?
a juried exhibition sponsored by the French government
Henri Matisse was told by Gustave Moreau, his teacher at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, "You were born to ________."
The recent manufacture of oil paint in tubes made it possible for 19th-century European artists to make painting a portable activity. The spontaneity and directness of painting outdoors is evident in works by ________ artists.
Marcel Duchamp created a new art form in which the artist makes nothing, but merely labels an object as art. He called this art form
Paul Cézanne's emphasis on structure in painting was a direct influence in the development of
Vasili Kandinsky became convinced that art should be free of representational subject matter when he
mistook an upside-down painting of his for an unfamiliar work of spectacular beauty.