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base unit of mass


base unit for length


base unit of volume


the process of which the mass of the boat or paper is subtracted for the total mass to determine the mass of the load.


the curved interface in between the water and air.


statements of equal ratios

Freezing point

0 degree Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit

boiling point of water

100 degree celsius or 212 degree Fahrenheit

average body temp

37 degree celsius 0r 98.6 degrees fahrenheit

converting fahrenheit to celsius

F=(C X 1.8) + 32

converting celsius to fahrenheit

C= F - 32/ 1.8

Percent experimental error equation

observed % error = observed value - expected value/ expected value X 100

Important points when using a digital micro pipet

never use without a tip.
- never lay down with a full tip
-never let the plunger snap back up while withdrawing or after ejecting fluid
-always hold in vertical position
-never dial # greater or less than the range or pipet
-never re use the tip in a new solution

x axis

independent variable ( ie time)

y axis

dependent variable ( ie what is being studied)

compound microscope

consists of a compound of 3 lenses that interact to allow the specimen to be brought into focus. image hits the eye upside down and backwards


the ability for a microscope to maintain focus when switching between lenses.

transmission electron microscope

see inside the cell. looks flat

scanning electron microscope

detailed 3D surface od cell

field diameter

the diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking through the scope.

wet mount

when a slide is prepared by flooding a fresh specimen in some non preserving solution.

prepared slides

fixed with a special solution that prevents the specimen from deteriorating.


the study of cells


the study of tissue


the study of disease

squamous epithelium

means flat tissue that line the surface of the body

cell wall

surround the plasma wall. gives cell its shape. prevents cell from bursting (plants only)

cell membrane

controls what goes in and out of cell


generates ATP= converts solar energy to chemical energy. (plants only)


generate ATP- harvests chemical energy from food

golgi body

receives and modifies product made by the ER


Help with cell division by separating chromosomes. ( animals only)

large central vacuole

absorbs H2O in plant cell


houses DNA and RNA


rRNA is made


spherical shaped bacteria


spiral shaped bacteria


clusters of cells of bacteria


stands of bacteria cells

cell of membrane consists of:

phopholipids and proteins


not all substances can pass through the phospholipid bilayer.


most H2O molecules move in and out of cells by passing through these special protein pores


concentration= amount of solute/ volume of solution

concentration gradient

when solutions of different solute concentrations are separated by a barrier.

kinetic energy

the energy of the movement


more solute less water


les solute more water


equal solutes


random movement of particles down the concentration gradient from high to low concentration

net movement

diffusion moves away from the area of high concentration


movement of H2O molecules to higher concentrated area


red blood cells that look shriveled up b/c they have lost water to their surroundings


RBS that are placed in a hypotonic solution will swell and become spherical then burst due to influx of too much water

passive transport

solutes move from high to low concentration across a membrane


low sodium concentration in blood.


critical to living cells b/c enzymes control reactions of cell metabolism

Cellular metabolism

includes all the chemical reactions that take place in the cell

Dehydration synthesis

build molecules hydrolus reactions which degrade molecules


increase that rate of a reaction by 1 million times


enzymes bind to only one specific compound, called the substrate

active site

the shape of the binding on the enzyme

induced fit theory

once the substrate binds to the active site the enzyme changes shape slightly to bind the substrate more tightly


an inactivated enzyme


ideal conditions for enzyme activity


the measure of the H+ concentration in the solution


all chemical reactions speed up as temp is raised, however above 60 degrees celsius, many proteins are denatured

enzyme concentration

the higher the initial concentration of an enzyme the more product will be made pr unit time


inhibit the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex


the enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of H2O2 in to O2 and H2O

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