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69 terms

Bio Lab mid term

Vocabulary
STUDY
PLAY
gram
base unit of mass
meter
base unit for length
liter
base unit of volume
taring
the process of which the mass of the boat or paper is subtracted for the total mass to determine the mass of the load.
meniscus
the curved interface in between the water and air.
proportions
statements of equal ratios
Freezing point
0 degree Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit
boiling point of water
100 degree celsius or 212 degree Fahrenheit
average body temp
37 degree celsius 0r 98.6 degrees fahrenheit
converting fahrenheit to celsius
F=(C X 1.8) + 32
converting celsius to fahrenheit
C= F - 32/ 1.8
Percent experimental error equation
observed % error = observed value - expected value/ expected value X 100
Important points when using a digital micro pipet
never use without a tip.
- never lay down with a full tip
-never let the plunger snap back up while withdrawing or after ejecting fluid
-always hold in vertical position
-never dial # greater or less than the range or pipet
-never re use the tip in a new solution
x axis
independent variable ( ie time)
y axis
dependent variable ( ie what is being studied)
compound microscope
consists of a compound of 3 lenses that interact to allow the specimen to be brought into focus. image hits the eye upside down and backwards
parfocal
the ability for a microscope to maintain focus when switching between lenses.
transmission electron microscope
see inside the cell. looks flat
scanning electron microscope
detailed 3D surface od cell
field diameter
the diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking through the scope.
wet mount
when a slide is prepared by flooding a fresh specimen in some non preserving solution.
prepared slides
fixed with a special solution that prevents the specimen from deteriorating.
Cytologist
the study of cells
histology
the study of tissue
pathology
the study of disease
squamous epithelium
means flat tissue that line the surface of the body
cell wall
surround the plasma wall. gives cell its shape. prevents cell from bursting (plants only)
cell membrane
controls what goes in and out of cell
chloroplast
generates ATP= converts solar energy to chemical energy. (plants only)
mitochondria
generate ATP- harvests chemical energy from food
golgi body
receives and modifies product made by the ER
Centriole
Help with cell division by separating chromosomes. ( animals only)
large central vacuole
absorbs H2O in plant cell
nucleus
houses DNA and RNA
nucleolus
rRNA is made
cocci
spherical shaped bacteria
spirilla
spiral shaped bacteria
Staph
clusters of cells of bacteria
strep
stands of bacteria cells
cell of membrane consists of:
phopholipids and proteins
semipremable
not all substances can pass through the phospholipid bilayer.
aquaporin
most H2O molecules move in and out of cells by passing through these special protein pores
concentration
concentration= amount of solute/ volume of solution
concentration gradient
when solutions of different solute concentrations are separated by a barrier.
kinetic energy
the energy of the movement
hypertonic
more solute less water
hypotonic
les solute more water
isotonic
equal solutes
diffusion
random movement of particles down the concentration gradient from high to low concentration
net movement
diffusion moves away from the area of high concentration
osmosis
movement of H2O molecules to higher concentrated area
crenate
red blood cells that look shriveled up b/c they have lost water to their surroundings
hemolyze
RBS that are placed in a hypotonic solution will swell and become spherical then burst due to influx of too much water
passive transport
solutes move from high to low concentration across a membrane
hyponatermia
low sodium concentration in blood.
enzymes
critical to living cells b/c enzymes control reactions of cell metabolism
Cellular metabolism
includes all the chemical reactions that take place in the cell
Dehydration synthesis
build molecules hydrolus reactions which degrade molecules
enzyme
increase that rate of a reaction by 1 million times
substrate
enzymes bind to only one specific compound, called the substrate
active site
the shape of the binding on the enzyme
induced fit theory
once the substrate binds to the active site the enzyme changes shape slightly to bind the substrate more tightly
denatured
an inactivated enzyme
optimal
ideal conditions for enzyme activity
pH
the measure of the H+ concentration in the solution
temperature
all chemical reactions speed up as temp is raised, however above 60 degrees celsius, many proteins are denatured
enzyme concentration
the higher the initial concentration of an enzyme the more product will be made pr unit time
inhibitors
inhibit the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex
catalase
the enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of H2O2 in to O2 and H2O