59 terms

Outdoor Emergency Care (5th Edition): Chapter 13

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Terms in this set (...)

Ventilation
Air moving in and out of lungs, replacing CO2 with O2 in the alveioli
Alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood. CO2 leaves blood and is exchanged with O2 from air.
Dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing
How long can a body survive without oxygen?
5-10 minutes before severe damage is caused
Where does the airway begin?
Lips and nostrils
Where does the airway end?
Lung tissue (alveoli)
Where does the division in the airway start?
Vocal cords
Percentage of air that is nitrogen
78%
Percentage of air that is oxygen
21%
Percentage of air that is other gases
1%
Diffusion
Gases move from area of high concentration to low concentration.
Where does diffusion occur?
capillaries
Diffusion of Oxygen
Oxygen moves from air, where there is a lot, to the blood, where there is little. This happens in the capillaries. Oxygen binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide moves from blood, where there is a lot, to the air, where there is little. This happens in the capillaries. Carbonic acid in the blood is transferred to the air as carbon dioxide.
Capillaries
Microscopic vessel through which exchanges take place between the blood and cells of the body
As the level of carbonic acid in the blood increases...
the pH level lowers, and blood becomes more acidic
What controls the rate and depth of breathing?
How much carbonic acid (CO2) is in the blood
Larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
Bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli
Pleural Space
The potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. It is described as "potential" because under normal conditions, the space does not exist.
Pleura
double-layered membrane surrounding each lung
Diaphragm
a dome-shaped, muscular partition separating the thorax from the abdomen in mammals. It plays a major role in breathing, as its contraction increases the volume of the thorax and so inflates the lungs.
Accessory muscles of respiration
various muscles of the neck, chest, and abdomen that may become active when depth of respiration must be significantly increased
Assessing breathing
Rate, Rhythm, Quality
Assessing breathing - Rate
Normal rate of breathing
Assessing breathing - Rhythm
Breaths should be equal in duration, time between breaths should be equal. Exercise does not change rhythm, but rate goes up.
Assessing breathing - Quality
Little external sound, inconspicuous except during exercise.
Normal breathing rate of infant
20-25 breaths per minute
Normal breathing rate of child
15-20 breaths per minute
Normal breathing rate of adult
12-20 breaths per minute
Part of brain that controls breathing
medulla oblongata
right bronchus and left bronchus
two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
Steepness of bronchi
Right bronchus is steeper than left bronchus, food may travel down it by upright patient
Airway patency
a condition in which an airway is open and unobstructed
Most common cause of airway blockage
The tounge
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
a disease that results in a gradual loss of lung function
Common forms of COPD
Chronic bronchitis and chronic emphysema
Common causes of COPD
Long term smoke inhalation/exposure
chronic bronchitis
inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
chronic emphysema
lung disease that causes permanent destruction of the alveoli
Asthma
A chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.
Bronchospasm
a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut
Hyperventilation Syndrome
usually severe agitiation, anxiety or fright, hyperventilation, progressive signs and symptoms of alkalosis. Results in low CO2 levels in blood
Pulmonary Embolism
A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.
Blood clot
The conversion of blood from a liquid form to solid through the process of coagulation
Deep vein thrombosis
A blood clot in a deep vein, most often an extremity
Anoxia
absence of oxygen
Pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumonia
An inflammation/infection of lung tissue, where the alveoli in the affected areas fill w/fluid
Cyanotic
Bluish skin color due to lack of Oxygen
Wheezing
High pitched sound heard in the lungs with asthmatics or lung disease. Caused by narrowing of bronchioles/airway tubes
Signs of respiratory failure
Choking or gagging
Inability to speak
Open-mouthed breathing
Panting, gasping,
Breathing through pursed lips
Tachypnea
Bradypnea
Cyanosis
Nasal flairing
Sitting in upright/tripod position
Changes in levels of responsiveness
Tachypnea
Greater than 30 respirations per minute in adults
Bradypnea
Fewer than 10 respirations per minute
Tripod position
Sit upright, leaning forward with hands near/gripping thighs/knees
Crepitus
a crackling or grating sound usually of bones
paresthesia
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause. Goes away when breathing rate normalizes
Nasal flaring
Flaring out of the nostrils, indicating that there is an airway obstruction.
Barrel shaped chest
emphysema, COPDs