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US Studies Chapter 19 Review
Terms in this set (60)
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Right of people to choose their own form of government.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; (IGA)
part of European alliance system and balance of power prior (BEFORE) to World War I.
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia (GBFR) in the years BEFORE World War I.
Britain, France, and Russia- Later joined by Italy, Belgium and US.
A nation that joins another nation in some common effort, such as winning a war.
A military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.
A conflict between Russia and Austria occurred here, and the unrest sparked tension of the World War.
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
popular and legendary hero of the 1910 Mexican Revolution; pursued by General "Black Jack: Pershing when he entered the U.S. in 1916 (Villa escaped Pershing but died at the hands of unknown assassins in 1923
John J. Pershing
American General who led the forces to capture Pancho Villa. Was nicknamed "Blackjack"
He was the head of the Food Administration during WWI. He ensured the success of the Food Administration and created a surplus of food through volunteer actions. Later becomes president
The leader of the Bolshevik Party who overthrew the Russian Government and started a Communist government
Archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hands; his death was a main cause for World War I
J. Edgar Hoover
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, F.B.I.
-28th president of the United States,
-known for World War I leadership.
-Attended the Treaty of Versailles
-Came up with14 points post-war plan and the League of Nations idea(but failed to win U.S. ratification)
-won Nobel Peace Prize
Czar Nicholas II
Russian Czar during WWI;
-unpopular with Russian people;
-Overthrown in March 1917
-executed by Bolsheviks after November Revolution (1917)
-Last monarch of Russia
became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist.
-Believed in the government supporting big business.
-Quote: "The business of America is business"
David Lloyd George
-Great Britain's representative at the Treaty of Versaille in 1919.
Famous American WWI fighter pilot known as the "ace of aces."
-Kaiser of Germany at the time of the WWI reigning from 1888-1918.
-He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain.
-His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
-Last monarch of Germany
-French prime minister in last years of WWI
Attended Treaty of Versailles Conference of 1919.
-Pushed for heavy reparations from Germans.
-Wanted harsh terms for Germans to suffer and help break Germany up.
Henry Cabot Lodge
- he led the successful fight against American participation in the League of Nations, which had been proposed by President Woodrow Wilson at the close of World War I.
First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.
Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Said that Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's proximity (closeness) to the US). In return, Germany would give back Texas, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
Selective Service Act
(1917) Law that required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for the draft into the armed forces- would be chosen by a lottery (picked at random)
FORCED military service, (military draft)violated both Democratic and Republican principles
A black WWI regiment (military unit) who saw more continuous duty on the front lines than any other American regiment. Received Cross of War award. Also known as the Harlem Hell fighters. Fought in WWI w/ French
War Industries Board
Agency created in 1917 to coordinate government purchases of military supplies, wielded more power than any government agency had before -> turned factories into places that made war materials *overall mismanaged and inefficient
daylight savings time
Created during WWI to save electricity by moving clocks ahead one hour for the summer.
American citizens were lending money to the government to pay for the war.
Bonds sold by the government during World War I to help raise revenue for the war effort
National War Labor Board
During WWI, A board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war
"The Great Migration"
1914-1945; mass movement of African Americans from the South to the North; reasons = jobs, prejudice, crop failures; leads to race riots in the North
Spying, especially to gain government secrets.
Espionage Act of 1917
Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during WW1
Sedition Act of 1918
made it illegal for Americans to speak or show disloyalty about the US government, constitution, or flag during WWI.
Schenck v. the United States
Supreme Court ruled that an individual's freedom of speech could be curbed when the words constitute a "clear and present danger."
No man's land
The space between opposing trenches
League of Nations
Created in Wilson's 14 Points.
-Would help preserve peace and prevent future wars by pledging to respect and protect each other's territory and political independence
-US never supported it
Form of government in which the king/queen has ALL of the power. (no limits)
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
A group of Communists who competed for power in Russia-led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
means to cease fire (end the war)
A series of proposals in which U.S. President Wilson outlined a plan for achieving lasting world peace after World War I.
War damages (war debts)
Treaty of Versailles- KNOW THIS WELL!!!!!!!!!
Signed by Germany on June 28, 1919.
1) B- BLAME- Germany had to admit guilt or they were to BLAME for the war
2) R-REPARATIONS- Germany was made to pay reparations or war debts to the Allies.
3) A- ARMY- Germany had to reduce their military
4) T- TERRITORY- Germany also lost land or territories- lost all colonies in Africa and the Far East
All of these reasons contributed to the eventual reason for the outbreak of WW2.
A nationwide panic caused by the fear that Communists might seize power as strikes erupted across the U.S. in 1919
Boston Police Strike
In 1919, 75% of police force walked off the job. Caused riots and looting to erupt in the city. When the strikers returned to work the police commissioner refused to accept them. They were fired and a new police force was hired
Demilitarized Zone in the German Rhineland.
- A region where no military forces or weapons are permitted (3 letters)
November 11, 1918; Germany signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting); this US holiday is now known as Veteran's Day
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Had switched side from Central powers to Allied powers
" We must make the world safe for democracy"
"The war to end all wars"
Who compared sedition to "yelling fire in a crowded theater"
Oliver Wendell Holmes
"The Big Four" at the Treaty of Versaille Conference
France- Clemenceau (wants revenge) , England- David Lloyd George (wants revenge) ,
U.S. - Woodrow Wilson ( wants peace w/ no wars) ,
Italy- Vittorio Orlando ( wants land)
Where was the League of Nations headquartered?
Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, countries with ports on the Baltic Sea
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