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HENRETTA APUSH Chapter 6
Terms in this set (36)
Controversy over population representation for House of Representatives. North didn't wanted slaves to count; South wanted to count them fully. Convention tied representation and taxation together--> the more slaves the South claimed, the higher their tax bill. Compromise: count each slave as 3/5 a person for both purposes.
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution. This group feared a powerful and distant central government would be out of touch with the needs of citizens. They also complained that it failed to guarantee individual liberties in a bill of rights.
Articles of Confederation
The written document defining the structure of the government from 1781 to 1788 under which the Union was a confederation of equal states, with no executive and limited powers, existing mainly to foster a common defense.
Battle at Yorktown
A battle in which French and American troops and a French fleet trapped the British army under the command of General Charles Cornwallis . The Franco-American victory broke the resolve of the British government and brought the end of the war.
Battle of Saratoga
A multi-stage battle in New York, ending with the surrender of British General John Burgoyne. The victory ensured the diplomatic success of American representatives in Paris, who gained a military alliance with France as a result of France's belief that the Americans might actually succeed.
Bill of Rights
First Ten Amendments to U.S. Constitution drafted by James Madison in the First Congress to meet the objections of many Antifederalists that there was no protection against abusive governmental power
checks and balamces
theory of the U.S. Constitution that government should be divided into three branches and each branch be made to limit and oppose the power of the others
the army of the U.S. during the Revolutionary War commanded by General George Washington
Supporters of the Constitution of 1787, which created a strong central government capable of defending the minority propertied party in each state from the majority tyranny of the masses.
the division of power between the state governments and the federal government
clause in the U.S. Constitution requiring non-slave states to return the escaped property of the slave states
General George Washington
leader of the Continental Army throughout the American Revolution
the resolution of the conflict between the New Jersey Plan (all states equally represented) and the Virginia Plan (states with larger population have more representatives than smaller states); House of Representatives based on population; Senate based on equality of states (2 Senators each)
brilliant young architect of the U.S. Constitution
John Adams' "Thoughts on Government"
John Adams' commentary on the nee state constitutions of the American Revolution; strongly supported bicameral legislatures
elite property owners and professionals who favored stronger national government to defend the country and promote economic growth and the security of property
necessary and proper clause
clause in U.S. Constitution authorizing Congress to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out the ends of the constitution; also referred toas the "elastic clause" since its language could be made to stretch to defend almost any government action.
New Jersey Plan
An alternative plan drafted by delegates from small states, retaining the Confederation's single-house congress with one vote per state. It shared with the Virginia Plan enhanced congressional powers to raise revenue, control commerce, and make binding requisitions on the states.
the proposed U.S. Constitution had to be approved in 9 state constitutional conventions before it would become law
Revolutionary State Constitutions
with the collapse of British authority in 1776, each colony had to draft a new state constitution to govern it; all adopted very republican constitutions with weak governors, and short terms for all elected officials
separation of powers
American belief that unchecked power is potentially tyrannical; power to be distributed in separate branxhes of government to create internal check and limitation
A 1786-1787 uprising led by farmers centered in western Massachusetts many of them Revolutionary War veterans, protesting the taxation policies of the eastern elites who controlled the state's government.
The Federalist Papers
collection of essays commentomg and defending in detail the new U.S. Constitution during the ratification debtes; written anonymously by Madison, Jay, and Hamilton
The French Alliance
after the Battle of Sratoga, the French agree to help finance and supply the American Revolution; negotiated by Benjamin Franklin
The Northwest Orinance of 1787
A land act that established a process by which settled territories would become the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. It also banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. The land ordinances provided for orderly settlement and the admission of new states on the basis of equality with existing states.
The Philadelphia Convention
the Articles of Confederation proved uinadequate to the task of governing the new republic; a convention was held in this city for the purpose of "amending" the Articles; the delegates ended up scrapping the Articles and starting over
Treaty of Paris 1783
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. In the treaty, Great Britain formally recognized American independence and relinquished its claims to lands south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River. The British negotiators did not insist on a separate territory for their Indian allies.
A military camp, where George Washington's army of 12,000 soldiers and hundreds of camp followers suffered horribly in the winter of 1777-1778.
A plan drafted by James Madison and presented at the opening of the Philadelphia constitutional convention. Proposing a powerful three-branch government and tying representation in both houses of the congress to population, this plan would have eclipsed the voice of small states in the national government.
wartime finance & inflation
both federal and state governments had to borrow heavily and to print money (leading to serious inflation) to pay for war expenses; left dangerous financial crisis after war was over
A 1779 British declaration that any slave who deserted a rebel master would receive protection, freedom, and land from Great Britain. It contributed to some 30,000 African Americans taking refuge behind British lines.
A hidden tax on the farmers and artisans who accepted Continental bills in payment for supplies and the thousands of soldiers who took them as pay. Because of rampant inflation, Continental currency lost much of its value during the war; thus, the implicit tax on those who accepted it as payment.
"The Federalist No. 10"
An essay by James Madison in The Federalist (1787-1788) that challenged the view that republican governments only worked in small polities, it argued that a geographically expansive national government would better protect republican liberty.
A theory espoused by John Adams in Thoughts on Government (1776) that called for three branches of government, each representing one function: executive, legislative, and judicial. This system of dispersed authority was devised to maintain a balance of power and ensure the legitimacy of governmental procedures.
Battle of Long Island & New York
The first major engagement of the new Continental army, defending against 32,000 British troops outside of New York City. The Continentals, under General Washington, retreated, eventually crossing the Hudson River to New Jersey.
Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776
The most radically republican state constitution passed during the American Revolution, it granted all taxpaying men the right to vote and hold office. The constitution also created a unicameral (one-house) legislature with complete power; there was no governor to exercise a veto. Other provisions mandated a system of elementary education and protected citizens from imprisonment for debt.
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