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primary prevention

a type of intervention in which the goal is to forestall the onset of drug use by an individual who has had little or no previous exposure to drugs

secondary prevention

a type of intervention in which the goal is to reduce the extent of drug use in individuals who have already had some exposure to drugs

tertiary prevention

a type of intervention in which the goal is to prevent relapse in an individual following recovery in a drug-treatment program

polydrug users

individuals whose drug-taking behavior involves the abuse of two or more licit or illicit drugs simultaneously. Also referred to as multiple substance abusers

biopsychosocial model

a perspective on drug abuse treatment that recognizes the biological, psychological, and social factors underlying drug-taking behavior and encourages an integrated approach, based on these factors, in designing an individual's treatment program.


imprisonment for a fixed length of time - the goal of this is rehabilitation and to deter others from doing the same crime


a process of change through which there is a reduced likelihood that a pattern of problematic behavior will recur


the reduced likelihood that a person might engage in a pattern of problematic behavior in the future

drug trafficking

the unauthorized manufacture of any controlled substance, its distribution by sale or gift, or possession of such a substance with intent to distribute it

simple possession

having on one's person any illegal or nonprescribed controlled substance for one's own use

drug paraphernalia

products that are considered to be used to administer, prepare, package, or store illicit drugs

drug court

specialized court system that handles adult, nonviolent offenders of drug laws, incorporating a supervised treatment program instead of standard criminal sentencing

EAP Employee Assistance Programs

identify and assist employees with personal problems that are connected to drug abuse or dependence and to provide referrals to community agencies where these individuals can get further help

1986 Executive Order

mandated EAP for governmental employees and also mandated preemployment drug testing of all federal employees as well as periodic random schedules of drug testing afterward

Daytop Village

largest and oldest, drug-free therapeutic community program for AOD in the U.S.

Prison-Alternative and Prison-Based Treatment Programs

includes working toward GED, college degree, or developing a trade/skill

precontemplation stage

a stage of change in which the individual may wish to change but either lacks the serious intention to undergo change in the foreseeable future or is unaware of how significant his or her problem has become

contemplation stage

a stage of change in which the individual is aware that a problem exists and is thinking about overcoming it but has not yet made a commitment to take action

preparation stage

a stage of change in which the individual seriously considers taking action to overcome a problem in the next thirty days and has unsuccessfully taken action over the past twelve months

action stage

a stage of change in which the individual actually modifies his or her behavior and environment to overcome a problem

maintenance stage

a stage of change in which the individual has become drug-free for a minimum of six months and has developed new skills and strategies that reduce the probability of relapse

Pattern of family reactions to drug abuse



helps family members avoid feelings of humiliation and shame, not to mention their own sense of responsibility


expresses verbally or physically and is a strategy for avoiding feelings of shame by blaming others in the family for the problem


family members can no longer deny the problem or react in anger. implicit agreements are made that if a patter will stop, the family will respond in a positive way


earlier reactions are now replaced by a pervasive anxiety and obsessiveness toward the entire situation


family is forced to seek help after realizing that they have a problem

enabling behaviors

avoiding and shielding
attempting to control
taking over responsibilities
rationalizing and accepting
cooperation and collaborating

Prevention approaches that have failed

decrease availability of drugs
punitive measures
scare tactics and negative education
objective information approaches
self-esteem enhancement

approaches with promise

peer-refusal skills
anxiety and stress reduction
social skills and personal decision making
life skills training


inclination to resist the negative impact of risk factors in a person's life through the positive impact of protective factors

affective education

an approach in ATOD prevention programs that emphasizes the building of self-esteem and an improved self-image

values clarification

an approach in ATOD prevention programs that teaches positive social values and attitudes

peer-refusal skills

techniques by which an individual can resist peer pressure to use alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs.


individuals in the community who function as positive role models to children and adolescents in ATOD prevention programs

sociocultural filters

a set of considerations specific to a particular culture or community that can influence the reception and acceptance of public information

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