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1300-1650; reached peak 1500; rebirth; creativity & change, realism, energy, perspective; Donatello, Castiglione


1517; economic (poor), corruption in Church, power struggle against Pope, kings, & princes; black death/plague; Martin Luther, John Calvin, Tetzel

Scientific Revolution

1500s; new way of thinking about physcial universe; breakthroughs in medicine & chemistry; Bacon, Descartes


1400s; monarchs wanted more land, new trade routes, discovery of gold and spices; Dias, Prince Henry, Columbus;

Age of Absolutism

1500s; time when European rulers strove to extend their power over all aspects of life in their nations; Peter the Great


1650-1800; intellectual revolution in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices; Bach, Bacon

American Revolution

1775-1777; british settlers who rebelled against England in the Thirteen Colonies; John Adams, Sam Adams

Compare Philosophy of Locke & Hobbes

both thought a ruler was absolutely necessary for a country to thrive and flourish; own ideas for the world to see and have influenced world leaders and the modern world

Constitutional Government

a government whose power is defined and limited by law;
ex) cabinet system

Compare Scientific Rev. & Enlightenment

both stressed about natural laws and reasoning

Absolute Monarchy

a form of government headed by a ruler, or monarch, with unlimited power
ex) Louis XIV of France

Reasons to conquer people/countries

1) spread religion
2) gain wealth/build empire
3) spread democracy

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