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the process enabling financial and investment markets to operate internationally, the spreading of something throughout the world


Developments that were first made in Southern Asia and then spread to other places through trade and conquest

Zheng He

a Chinese admiral who explored the Indian Ocean area

Henry the Navigator

a Portuguese prince who funded many explorers

Vasco de Gama

the first European to reach India by boat

Christopher Columbus

the man credited with discovering America


the tendency that people have to judge foreign people/groups based on their own culture


a great empire in the Valley of Mexico from 1325 to approximately 1502


a South American empire that was exterminated by Pizarro

Columbian Exchange

the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas

Joint-Stock Company

a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits


an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit


an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

Favorable Balance of Trade

an economic situation in which a country exports more than it imports - that is, sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad

Commercial Revolution

the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries

Tribute System

a system in which every Indian that was 14 years or older had to pay a certain amount of gold dust to the Spanish every three months, got a brass token as proof of payment

Mita System

a system in which Indian villages had to supply a certain number of men for the Spanish to work in the silver mines

Potosi Silver Mines

Modern-day Bolivia, huge silver veins beneath the surface

Sugar Plantations

a source of income for the colonies, needed slaves to work, Portugal in particular employed this in Brazil

Triangular Trade

the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America

Atlantic Slave Trade

the buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas

Middle Passage

the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and South America, to be as slaves - so called because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular trade

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