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71 terms

Axial Muscles

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Head and neck
vertebral column
respiration
abdominal wall
pelvic floor
List the five groups of Axial muscles
True
True or False? Axial muscles have both their origins and insertions on parts of the axial skeleton?
the superficial fascia or on the skull

superficial fascia of the skin
Facial muscles have their origin in _______ and their insertion in the _________.
Frontalis
Aponeurosis tendon
Occipitalis
The cranial aponeurosis consists of:
Frontalis
forehead
What muscle moves the scalp, eyebrows; wrinkles skin of forehead?
Aponeurosis tendon
What attaches the frontalis to the occipitalis?
Occipitalis
base of skull
What muscle retracts scalp?
Orbicularis oculi
Circular eye
What muscle is the "blink" muscle?
Orbicularis oris
circular mouth
What muscle compresses and purses the lips and is known as the "kiss" muscle?
Buccinator
bucco=cheek
Medial to Masseter
What muscle compresses the cheek, holds food between teeth during chewing?
Platysma
platy=flat
What muscle pulls the lower lip inferiorly? Tenses the skin of the neck?
Depressor anguli oris
depresses-angle-mouth
What muscle draws the corners of the mouth inferiorly and laterally. What is the "frown" muscle?
Zygomaticus major
zygomatic=cheekbone major=greater
What elevates the corners of the mouth? The "smile" muscle?
common tendinous ring
anterior sclera (outer surface)
Six Extrinsic eye muscles (rectus and oblique) originate from a ________ in the posterior orbit and attach onto the ________ of the eye.
medial rectus
The ______ muscle moves the eye medially.
lateral rectus
The _______muscle moves the eye laterally.
temporalis and masseter
What muscles elevates and retracts the mandible?
Medial and lateral pterygoid (wing like)
What muscles move the mandible side to side?
genioglossus
What extrinsic muscle allows a person to (protract) stick out their tongue?
styloglossus
What extrinsic muscle elevates and retracts the tongue?
hyoglossus
What extrinsic muscle depresses and retracts the tongue?
palatoglossus
What extrinsic muscle elevates the posterior part of the tongue?
intrinsic
The tongue also has _______muscles with-in the tongue allowing for curling, squeezing and folding.
throat
The pharynx is also called the _______.
superior, middle and inferior constrictor
The pharynx consists of the ________ muscles that sequentially contract.
suprahyoid and infrahyoid
The anterior neck muscles are divided into the _______ (above the hyoid) and the ________ (below the hyoid).
digastric (two bellies), geiohyoid, mylohyoid, stylohyoid
What four muscles elevate the hyoid bone while swallowing?
omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid
What four muscles depress the hyoid bone during swallowing?
sternocleidomastoid or SCM
What muscle extends from the sterum and clavicle and inserts on the mastoid process?
flexes
A bilateral contraction of the SCM muscle _______the neck.
unilateral contraction
What happens when the SCM muscle causes lateral flexion and rotation of the head to the opposite side?
extends the head
Bilateral movement of the posterior neck muscles ______.
turn to the same side
Unilateral movement of the posterior neck muscles causes the head and neck to ___________.
external intercostal or oblique, internal intercostal or internal obliques and transverse intercostal or abdominus
Name the 3 layers of muscles that make up the abdominal wall starting with the superficial layer.
sticking fingers into front pockets
The external intercostal muscles of the abdomen run as though you are ________.
putting hands into back pockets. Run posteriorally.
The Internal intercostal layer of muscles of the abdomen run as though you are _____.
toward the midline
The transverse intercostal muscles (deep) run ______.
external oblique (hands in front pocket)
The top layer of abdominal muscle is the ______.
internal oblique (hands in back pocket)
The middle abdominal layer is the ______.
tranverse abdominis (horizontal)
The deep abdominal layer is the _____.
sterum to the pubic bone
The rectus abdominis connects the ______.
maintain posture and to stand erect.

Bilateral contraction extends the spinal column

Unilateral contraction flexes the column laterally (sidebend)
What do the erector spinae (t-bone steak) muscles do?
elevates
The external intercostal muscles of respiration _______ ribs during inhalation.
depresses
The internal intercostal muscles of respiration ______ribs during forced exhalation.
depresses
The transverse thoracis muscles of respiration ____ ribs during exhalation.
quiet respiration

flattening
The diaphragm is the muscle of _______. Contraction causes ______ of the diaphram.
central tendon
The diaphragm possesses a ________ onto which all of it's fibers converge.
perineum
The diamond shaped region between the lower extremities is called the _________.
Urogenital triangle-anterior-genitalia/urethra
Anal triangle-posterior-anus
What are the two triangular areas of the pelvic floor?
move and stabilize the pelvic and pectoral girdles
The axial muscles do all of the following except:
five
the axial muscles are organized by location into how many major groups:
muscles of facial expression and extrinsic eye muscles
muscles of mastication and movement of tongue
muscles of the pharynx and anterior neck
specific groups within the muscles of the head and neck include:
on either the skull or the hyoid bone
with few exceptions, muscles of the head and neck originate
frontal belly, occipital belly and aponeurosis
the epicranius is composed of which of the following?
belly
the word root gaster most nearly means
muscles of facial expression
which of these muscles insert into the superficial fascia of the skin?
compresses and purses the lips
the orbicularis oris muscle:
platysma
which muscle pulls the lower lip inferiorly and tenses the skin of the neck?
orbicularis oculi
the muscle that closed the eye and produces winking, blinking and squinting is the:
the facial nerve
the muscles of facial expression are innervated by
lateral oblique
which of the following is not an extrinsic eye muscle?
superior rectus and inferior oblique
which extrinsic eye muscle elevates the eyes?
mouth
the word root geni most nearly means
pharyngeal constrictors
which muscles initiate swallowing and force the food inferiorly into the esophagus?
hyoid bone
the dividing point for the two groups of anterior muscles of the neck is the
geniohyoid
which muscle elevates the hyoid bone and depresses the mandible?
sternocleidomastoid
Unilateral contraction of the ______ results in lateral flexion and rotation of the head to the opposite side; bilateral contraction flexes the head and neck.
bandage
the word root splenion, used in the names of two posterior neck muscles, translates to mean:
erector spinae
the three large, complex groups of muscles that extend or laterally flex the vertebral column are collectively called the _______muscles.
serratus posterior inferior and interior intercostals
serratus posterior and external intercostals
diaphragm and the tranversus thoacis
name muscles that elevate the ribs in respiration
rectus abdominus
internal and external oblique
transversus abdominus
which of the following muscles reinforce the anterolateral wall of the abdomen?