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chapter 5 bio vocab

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organic molecule
carbon-based molecule
inorganic molecule
non-carbon-based molecule
hydrocarbon
organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
functional group
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules.
hydrophilic
attracts water molecules.
monomer
small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
polymer
long chain of monomers
carbohyrdate
organic compound made of sugar molecules.
monosaccharide
sugar containing one sugar unit
disaccharide
sugar containing two monosaccharides
polysaccharide
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
starch
polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers
glycogen
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
cellulose
consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls.
lipid
one of a class of water-avoiding compounds
hydrophobic
avoids water molecules
fat
organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids
saturated fat
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. fits together tightly.
unsaturated fat
fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chains
steroid
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
cholesterol
steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells
protein
polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers
amino acid
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
polypeptide
chain of linked amiono acids
denaturation
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
activation energy
minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction
catalyst
agent that speeds up chemical reactions
enzyme
specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of a cell
substrate
reactant acted on by an enzym
active site
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits