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15 terms

Biology Honors Chapter 6 Section 1

Creekside, Biology Honors, Byrns
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autotroph
an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms
photosynthesis
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
heterotroph
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
light reactions
the initial reactions in photosynthesis, which are triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems I and II and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosmosis
chloroplast
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
thylakoid
a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis
granum
a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
stroma
in plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast
pigment
a substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color
chlorophyll
a green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbohydrates
carotenoid
a class of pigments that are present mostly in plants and that aid in photosynthesis
photosystem
in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis
primary electron acceptor
a molecule in the thylakoid membrane that accepts the electrons that chlorophyll a loses in the light reactions
electron transport train
a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
chemiosmosis
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP