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AP Chemistry Chapters 5 and 19
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Terms in this set (21)
What does "E" stand for?
what is the formula for ΔE?
Energy
ΔE = E final - E initial
Endothermic
Chemical reaction that ABSORBS energy
Exothermic
A chemical reaction that RELEASES energy
What does "H" stand for?
What is the formula for ΔH?
Enthalpy
ΔH = ΔH products - ΔH reactants
ΔHºrxn (standard Enthalpy change) formula
ΔHº rxn = ΣmΔHºf(products) - ΣnΔHºf(reactants)
*(m and n are reaction coefficients)
Enthalpy
Heat. (heat flow in a process occurring at constant pressure)
Denoted by "H"
What is the sign (+ or -) of ΔH when the reaction is endothermic?
Positive
Heat Capacity
Object's temperature change when it absorbs a certain amount of energy (heat required to raise the temp by 1℃)
Specific Heat
Heat capacity of one gram of substance
Specific Heat formula
Specific Heat = Amount of heat (J) / mass (g) x ΔT (K)
Hess's Law
ΔH rxn = sum of ΔH for the individual steps in the process
That's it for chapter 5!
😁
Chapter 19
Chemical Thermodynamics
Is the oxidation of iron considered a spontaneous reaction?
Yes, like a rusted nail.
What does "S" stand for?
What is the formula for ΔS?
Entropy
ΔS = S final - S initial
ΔSº Formula
ΣnSº(products) - ΣmSº(reactants)
*(m and n are reaction coefficients)
What does "G" stand for?
What is the formula for ΔG?
Gibbs Free Energy
ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
What is Gibbs Free Energy
Simply, Enthalpy - (Temperature) (Entropy)
Used to determine Spontaneity.
ΔGº Formula
ΔGº = ΣnΔGºf(products) - ΣmΔGºf(reactants)
Equation linking ΔGº and the equilibrium constant, K
ΔGº = -RT ln K
R (ideal gas constant) = 8.314 J/mol-K ; T is the absolute temperature
This concludes chapter 19!
😪 now go take a nap:)
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