Terms in this set (83)
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system made up of 3 tiers. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
"Funding of the National Debt at Par"
taxes on imported or exported goods, used by goverments to encourage domestic spending
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program.
The Bank of the United States
Began its operations in 1792. Was created when Hamilton suggested a funding bill that would take all the states debt and put it in control of the governemt to make it a national debt that they could all pay off together through taxes. It caused a lot of heated debates because people argued that since it was not in the Constitution then Hamilton had no authority to creat a national bank. Despite these objections congress agreed to the bill and Washington signed it.
"Strict construction" vs. "Loose construction" of the Constitution
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
One of the first domestic taxes was on whiskey which angered farmers, who tarred and feathered in protest, because the liquid form of wheat was whiskey. Whiskey was what farmers made regularly because it was easier to bring into town. Hamilton convinced Washington that federal authority was being challenged and to send troops, which he did. This was the beginning of the formation of political parties.
Political party system
A result of the widely-published argument between Hamilton and Jefferson, the political party system departed from the traditional practice of forming political factions for specific reasons and instead required that permanent political parties be formed.
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799. inspired by the American Revolution.
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation, 1793
Citizen Genet Affair
A French representative who attempted to contradict the Neutrality Proclamation by organizing armies to attack British and Spanish territories. Washington ejected him from the country when he became dangerous to his control over the people.
Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794/General "Mad Anthony" Wayne
The U.S. Army, led by General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Treaty of Greenville, 1795
Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation and $10,000.
The Jay Treaty with Britain, 1794
Pinckney's Treaty with Spain, 1796
Washington's Farewell Address, 1796
warned that political parties would weaken the nation and to avoid entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations
The Federalist Party
1st Political party in american history. Supports new constitution led by George Washington, John Adams and Alexander Hamilton (wealthy People) British Alliance, National Banks,Protective Tariffs
President John Adams, 1796
Second President of the US. He was one of the lawyers who agreed to defend the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre. At the Second Continental Congress in 1775, he pressed for a complete break with England . In 1778, he was sent to Europe to obtain a treaty of alliance with France. Later, he returned to France and in concert with Franklin and John Jay, negotiated the Treaty of Paris (1783) with Great Britain to end the revolution. He was elected the first vice president of the United States. In 1796, he overcame Hamilton's opposition to his candidacy to win a narrow victory for the presidency. Vilified by the Republicans for not vetoing the Alien and Sedition Acts, he was defeated for reelection by Jefferson in 1800.
The XYZ Affair, 1797/Talleyrand
Three French agents asked for over ten million dollars in tribute before they would begin diplomatic talks with America on behalf of French Foreign Minister Talleyrand. When Americans heard the news, they were outraged. Adams decided to strengthen the Navy to show France that America was a force to be reckoned with.
Convention of 1800 with Napolean Bonaparte
Treaty signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America, forgave France $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president. , Napolean was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Lousiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America.
Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798
Contains four parts: 1. Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. 2. Alien Act-gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country. 3. Alien Enemies Act-permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to.-No arrests made under the Alien Act or the Alien Enemies Act. 4. The Sedition Act-key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration. The Sedition Act's purpose was to silence Republican opposition to Adam's administration. Many people were fined and jailed under the Sedition Act. Jefferson and Madison believed the acts were violations of the First Amendment. Expired March 1801.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798/Nullification
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican (originally an Anti- Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
The "Revolution of 1800"
by 1800, the Federalist Party split, Clearing the way for the presidency for the Democratic-Republicans. the presidential election of 1800 was between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr and was noteworthy for 2 reasons. (1) For the second time in as many elections, a president was put with a vice president that he didn't want; this problem was fixed in 1804 with the 12th amendment. (2) It was America's first transfer of power—from Federalists to Democratic—Republican. No violence occurred, which was a feat happening for the first time. Jefferson thus referred to his victory and subsequent change over a "the bloodless revolution."
Jefferson's Inaugural Address, 1801-
He was an American politician, diplomat, and Secretary of the Treasury. He was responsible for balancing the budget, which let America purchase the Louisiana territory from France and greatly reduced their debt.
Judiciary Act of 1801
One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
"Packing the court"
-In 1936 the case against the Wagner act was pending so FDR proposed new legislation to fill the court with liberals.
- It would create 6 new Supreme Court Justices (and 50 new federal judges) plus allow the appointment a new judge anytime a judge doesn't retire at age 70.
- many in Congress fought against it
- no more new New Deal legislation was overturned after this.
Chief Justice John Marshall
Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established judiciary as a branch of government equal to legislative and executive; established judicial review, which allows Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional. was Jefferson's cousin.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Justice Samuel Chase
Associate justice of the Supreme Court and signer of the Declaration of Independence, he was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1791 by Washington, and was impeached for his criticism of President Jefferson. Chase was defended strongly, and was later acquitted by the Senate.
Barbary Pirates/The Pasha of Tripoli
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations that ended in America paying them the tribute
name for the navy of jefferson's presidency. Trying to avoid a overly-strong army, he had the navy dwindled down to a few tiny boats, dispersed throughout each American harbor.
He was the U.S. Minister to France from 1801 to 1804 and negotiated the purchase of the Louisiana Territory along with James Monroe.
Louisiana Purchase, 1801
The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Meriwether Lewis/George Rogers Clark/Lewis and Clark Expedition
sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the land west of the Mississippi River; found plants and animals; created accurate maps; met Native American groups; sent with William Clark and recorded findings and discoveries.
Shoshoni woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the lewis and clark expedition
American soldier and explorer whom Pikes Peak in Colorada is named. His Pike expedition often compared to the lewis and Clark expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisianna Purchase
An American politician and adventurer. He was a formative member of the Democratic-Republican Party in New York and a strong supporter of Governor George Clinton. He is remembered not so much for his tenure as the third Vice President, under Thomas Jefferson, as for his duel with Alexander Hamilton, resulting in Hamilton's death. He is also known for his trial and acquittal on charges of treason. Jefferson's vice-president for his first term; not voted into a second term because of radical ideas and ventures that threatened to break up the Union and resulted in the death of Alexander Hamilton.
British Orders in Council, 1806
A law passed by the English while fighting the French. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldnt get supplies, but American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy, leading to the War of 1812.
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
The Chesapeake Affair
Chesapeake denied having deserters in thecrew and refused the British ship 'Leopard' to a search. They opened fire, took four men, killed three, and wounded 18. Just off the coast of Virginia. Cpt. James Lawrence "Don't give up the ship!"
Embargo Act, 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Non-Intercourse Act, 1809
it allowed Americans to carry or trade with all nations except for Britain and France
President James Madison
proposed the Virginia plan at the Constitutional Convention. helped write the Federalist Papers. helped Jefferson organize the Democratic-Republican party. wrote the Virginia Resolves. became president in 1809. instituted Macon's Bill number two.
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852), Whig senator who helped make the Compromise of 1850, Clay and Calhoun's "American System." Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
General William Henry Harrison/Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811
presidential candidate for the Whigs in 1840. father was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a former Virginian governor. served as president for just 30 days before his death. Tecumseh in Prophetstown on the Tippecanoe river at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Prophets troops had to retreat
Battle of the Thames
William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and on October 4, 1813, won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend, 1814
A battle fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.
Commodore Oliver Perry/Battle of Lake Erie/Battle of the Thames
In the Battle of Lake Erie, he defeated and captured a British fleet in the Battle of Lake Erie and destroyed Tecumseh's Indian resistance in the Battle of Thames. He helped boost the American morale.
Francis Scott Key/Fort McHenry
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on the Baltimore Fort, Fort McHenry, during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner
General Andrew Jackson/Battle of New Orleans, 1815
General Jackson led the Battle of New Orleans when British troops attacked American soldiers in New Orleans. the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent but Americans did not know yet
The Constitution ("Old Ironsides")
an American frigate named the Constitution; it got its nickname when a sailor witnessed a shot bounce off the ships hull
The Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the War of 1812.border of Canada remained the same, Indians south of the border were ignored by the British, and British maritime violations were not mentioned
The Hartford Convention, 1814-1815
A gathering of New England Federalists to channel opposition to Thomas Jefferson and the war of 1812 Some participants may have regarded the meeting as preparatory to a secession movement by the New England colonies.
Washington Irving/James Fenimore Cooper
American writers who lived from 1819-1820 and 1789-1851 respectively. Irving is remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book, while Cooper noted for his stories of indians and the frontier life
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
The American System/Internal Improvements
1The three-part plan developed by Henry Clay that stressed a strong banking system, protective tariffs, and a network of roads and canals. Clay's plan was essential in developing a profitable home market. This home market enabled America to become a self-sufficient, isolated country. 2The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
"The Virginia Dynasty"
Between 1789 and 1825, four Virginians held the presidency for thirty-two of thirty-six years: George Washington, who served from 1789 to 1797; Thomas Jefferson, who served from 1801 to 1809; James Madison, who served from 1809 to 1817; and James Monroe, who served from 1817 to 1825.
President James Monroe
served from 1817 to 1825. fifth president. established the Missouri Compromise and Monroe Doctrine. bought Florida from Spain
The Era of Good Feelings
A period from 1817-1823 in which the disappearance of the Federalists enabled the Democratic-Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony.
The Panic of 1819
when European immigrants bought large amounts of cheap west American land.
The Cumberland Road
Extended from western Maryland to Illinois; provided a better, safer road for interstate travel
The Missouri Compromise
So that the balance of 11 free states and 11 slave states is not upset, Missouri is allowed to be admitted as a slave state, but Maine is admitted as a free state.
McCulloch v. Maryland
In a unanimous decision, the Court held that Congress had the power to incorporate the bank and that Maryland could not tax instruments of the national government employed in the execution of constitutional powers. Writing for the Court, Chief Justice Marshall noted that Congress possessed unenumerated powers not explicitly outlined in the Constitution.
Cohens v. Virginia
The Cohens were a Virginia family accused of selling lottery tickets illegally. The Virginia Supreme Court found the Cohens guilty, so they appealed to the Supreme Court in 1821. Virginia won in having the Cohens convicted. Virginia lost in that Judge Marshal made it so that the federal Supreme Court had the right to review any decision involving powers of the federal government. This was a major blow on states' rights.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Fletcher v. Peck
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Case in which the U.S. Supreme Court held (1819) that the charter of Dartmouth College, granted in 1769 by King George III, was a contract and as such could not be impaired by the New Hampshire legislature
United States politician and orator (1782-1817) who was a Massachusetts senator, Leader of the Whig Party, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency
John Quincy Adams
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts and was Secretary of State under President Monroe. In the presidential election of 1824, no one candidate received a majority of electoral votes and the election was decided in his favor by Congress (6th president). settled border issues and acquired Florida from Spain.
Treaty of 1818 (with Britain)
Treaty between Britain and America, it allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, and gave both countries a joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years.
Florida Purchase Treaty, 1819
Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.
British Foreign Secretary George Canning
asked the American minister in London if the United States would band together with the British in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory, and specifically warning the European dictators to keep their harsh hands off the Latin American republics.
The Monroe Doctrine
work of President James Monroe (1823). If European powers tried to colonize land in the Americas, It would be viewed as an act of war against the USA. Refrain them from recolonizing in Western Hemisphere