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Science
Medicine
Clinical Laboratory Sciences
EBM for Dx Tests
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Terms in this set (37)
Gold standard
Any diagnostic procedure believed to identify the diseased person with certainty
Sensitivity
probability a person with disease will have a positive test result
Specificity
probability a person without disease will have a negative test result
Positive predictive value
probability that a person with a positive test result has disease
Negative predictive value
probability that a person with a negative test result does not have disease
Sensitivity
TP ÷ all diseased
Sensitivity
The % (or proportion) of diseased persons with a positive (TP) test
High sensitivity
-Most diseased subjects will have a true positive test (a correct diagnosis)
-Test is "strong" enough to detect disease in nearly all who have it
Sensitivity
"rules out"
Specificity
TN ÷ all healthy
Specificity
The % (or proportion) of healthy persons with a negative (TN) test
High specificity
-Most healthy subjects will have TN tests (correct interpretation)
-Few will have FP (incorrect interpretation)
Specificity
High ______________ is desired when a false-positive test can harm a patient
Specificity
"rules in"
Positive predictive value
TP ÷ all positives
Positive predictive value
-% of all positive tests that are true positive
-Probability that those with positive test really have disease
Negative predictive value
TN ÷ all negatives
Negative predictive value
Probability that those with a negative test are really disease free
Sensitivity
The term that refers to the probability that a patient with disease has a positive test is _____________
Negative predictive value
The term that refers to the probability that a patient with a negative test is really disease free is ___________________
TP/(TP+FN)
equation for sensitivity
TN/(TN+FP)
equation for specificity
TP/(TP+FP)
equation for positive predictive value
TN/(TN+FN)
equation for negative predictive value
Likelihood ratio
-Can be used to determine post-test probability of disease
-Much LESS influenced by prevalence!
Pre-test probability
probability patient has disease before diagnostic test is done
Post-test probability
probability patient has disease after test result is known
Nomogram
post-test probability derived from this
Prevalence
pre-test probability is mostly based on this
Positive likelihood ratio
ONLY calculated when a positive test result is obtained
Positive likelihood ratio
VERY HIGH if both sensitivity and specificity are high
Negative likelihood ratio
ONLY calculated when a negative test result is obtained
Negative likelihood ratio
VERY LOW if both sensitivity and specificity are high
Positive result
Post-Test Probability should be significantly higher than the Pre-Test Probability
Negative result
Post-Test Probability should be significantly lower than the Pre-Test Probability
Pre-test probability
= all diseased ÷ all subjects
Post-test probability
Which of the following tells us the probability that a patient has a diseases after a test result is known?
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