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Terms in this set (166)
An approach based on information retrieved through experimentation or direct observation
reversal design (ABAB design)
A single subject, applied behavior analysis design which generally involves observing behavior during baseline, treatment, a return to baseline, and treatment reapplied.
Psychodynamic treatment model
By Freud; unconscious material is root of problems, focuses on analysis of thought; free association and Rorschach test
Biomedical treatment model
biological factors are the underlying cause of disorders
Behaviors which gradually resemble the target behavior or terminal objective
schedule of reinforcement
The behavioral requirements for a reinforcing stimulus to be delivered. Schedules may be fixed or variable based on interval or ratio criteria
The gradual removal of all explicit prompts or cues in an attempt to maintain the behavior on its own
Evaluation of emotional, physical, spiritual, psychological, and social dimensions because all make up the whole person
Behavioral treatment model
By Skinner. All behaviors are learned, so all behaviors can be unlearned or replaced by new behaviors. Task analysis and reinforcement schedule
fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval
Pavlovian technique pairing neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus
randomized group design
Experimental design that randomly assigns subjects to treatment or control conditions to compare performance
Region of the cerebral cortex that processes vision and perception
paralysis of one limb
paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
paralysis of all four limbs
Perception of sensory input, often sounds or tactile sensations, which are not occurring in reality
Records number of times a target behavior occurs
Recording technique that measures how long a particular behavior lasts during a given period
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Individualized plan for children with disabilities who qualify for special education services; functions as blueprint for determining best possible educational program for each child
Systematic, genetically determined decline in efficiency of body's organ systems
Process by which one is responsible and answerable for obligation to a set of constituenies
Characterizes a stage of development in which very young children will play beside each other but not engage in social interaction
Ability to tell difference between stimuli
Sandardized form of note taking. Data, assessment, plan
Standardized form of note taking. Subjective, objective, assessment, plan
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Assesses personality traits and psychopathology. Primarily used for diagnosis
The therapist projection of own feelings, ideas, and desires about other people and/or things onto the client
Congenital abnormality of trisomy 21 gene (extra chromosome) resulting in developmental disability and physical abnormalities
Increased and/or excessive muscular activity
the presentation of a stimulus resulting in an increase in the behavior it follows
Extreme sensitivity to sounds. Associated with a responsiveness to music and an ability to make fine auditory discriminations
the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure
Age-related gradual hearing loss
An approach to psychotherapy whose objective is awareness of causes or motivation for behavior which, then, leads to control over the behavior and improve of one's condition
An approach to music education by Carl Orff which emphasizes creative experience, natural abilities and sounds, the pentatonic scale and ostinati patterns.
The presentation of one word as a stimulus for the recall of a second word.
A music therapy approach which uses music as a metaphor for examining relationships.
A system of psychotherapy based on an individual's unconscious motivation and past experience
Rational Emotive Therapy
A system of psychotherapy proposed by Albert Ellis which attempts to confront one's rational belief system as a method of solving problems
One type of insight-oriented therapy which examines unconscious and deep-set emotions in order to restructure the personality
One type of insight-oriented therapy which promotes self growth and adjustment through behavior change
A technique for developing new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior
hierarchy of objectives
A logical sequence of behavioral expectations leading toward the desired outcome of therapy
repeated measures design
An experimental group design in which repeated observation of subjects under different treatment or no treatment conditions allows subjects to act as their own controls
Single subject, applied behavior analysis design
A research design which assess the effect of treatment. It refers to a group of "within-subject" or "intensive" designs which examine the behavior of one person or group over time
Perceived through subjective reality, as opposed to physically and objectively
Eric Berne's psychotherapy which proposes the examination of interactions in terms of explicit roles and games as a method of recognizing and understanding behavior patterns
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing, language, and memory
A region of the cerebral cortex which processes sensations, language, perception, body awareness, and attention
paralysis of one side of the body
paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body, typically involving the legs
Eclectic treatment model
Integrates the benefits of several approaches
Treatment models of music therapy
music therapy approaches
-Bonny Method of Guided Imagery in Music
Communication disorder resulting from brain damage. Symptoms include difficulty producing language (retrieval, substitutions, switching sounds, made up words), difficulty understanding language (pragmatic/sarcastic trouble, understanding others, understanding with background noise), and difficulty reading and writing (trouble reading, spelling, forming sentences and number concepts).
Inability to comprehend language due to damage to left temporal lobe
Inability to speak coherently caused by damage to left frontal lobe
apraxia of speech
Motor planning disorder where the muscles function but signals from the brain are disrupted causing incorrect sound production. In babies, no cooing. In children, difficulty combining sounds, replacing words and sounds with easier ones, inconsistent errors. In adults, slow speech rate, inconsistent errors, difficulty producing speech sounds (substitutions and omissions), better automatic speech (eg greetings)
disturbance in the sequence of spoken language resulting from decreased ability to plan and position the muscles involved in articulation
Motor speech disorder caused by damage to the brain. Impairment of muscles used for speech production. Symptoms include slurred, choppy, mumbled speech; slow or rapid but mumbled speech; changes in voice quality.
Damage to cerebellum, lack of coordination
Damage to upper motor neurons. Increased muscle tone but less flexibility and lack of coordination
Symptoms often found among individuals a manic episode. Individual is extremely talkative and may feel and irresistible urge to keep talking.
Disordered language with repetition of what the subject reads ex. A: How are you, B? B: How are you, B?
Orthopedic impairment and possible paralysis if membrane/tissue sacs open spinal cord
-Congenital defect in spinal column; "pouching" of spinal membranes or tissue, disrupting spinal cord
Fluid buildup in/around the brain, requires a shunt to drain fluid
Progressive weakness of all muscles in the body. Can be attributed to degeneration of muscle cells and their replacement by fat and fibrous tissue
lack of muscle tone
central hearing loss
Hearing loss due to damage to or impairment of the brain or central nervous system
conductive hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by disease or obstruction in outer or middle ear
Bulge in the wall of an artery in the brain caused by weakness of artery tissue
shortness of breath
Loss of musical skills due to processing deficits
Deprivation of oxygen to the brain because of disease or trauma
Genetic metabolic disorder that causes sever brain damage due to the body's inability to break down the chemical phenylalonine
blockage of the blood supply to the brain which may be transient and temporary or severe resulting in paralysis, aphasia (a speech disorder), or incontinence (loss of bowel control). Either ischemic or demorrhagic
Clot in blodd vessel that supplies blood to brain
Rupture of blood vessel in brain
Group of diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of arterial wall, causing a stroke or heart attack
Depressed state in infant 7-30 months caused by separation from primary caregiver. Symptoms include listlessness, lack of affect, anorexia, and depressed motor activity
Lack of rhythmicity in social interactions. May be present in those with autism, manic/depressive symptoms, or schizophrenia
types of physical disabilities (classifications)
All types of physical disabilities or types of paralysis can be classified by the extremities involved: hemiplegia, diplegia, monoplegia, paraplegia, quadriplegia. Congenital or adventitious. Neurological condition or muskuloskeletal condition.
Appear at birth
Appear after birth
Affects central nervous system. Further classified as traumatic (due to accident or abuse) or nontraumatic (due to disease or congenital)
due to disease or defect in muscles or bones
osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)
Autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by brittle bones that fracture easily
Being overly responsive to the sense of touch, especially in case of another person's touch
Series of disorders characterized by problems in movement, posture, and loss of voluntary muscle control. Caused by brain injury early in life
Persistent patter of behavior characterized by the break of social norms. Serious violations, aggression, destruction, or deceitfulness
disruptive behavior disorder
A type of conduct disorder characterized by oppositional and defiant behavior which does not meet criteria for other conduct disorders
An inherited disorder affecting the central nervous system and causing involuntary movements and contortions. May also cause cognitive decline and behavioral symptoms
A chronic nervous system disorder characterize by tremor, rigidity, and slow movements
pervasive developmental disorders
A variety of mental/behavioral disorder without biological cause. ie. Autism, Rett Syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder
A disorder in which a child with normal early development loses manual dexterity, coordinated gait, social engagement, and language. Associated with severe psychomotor retardation and deceleration of head growth
potential results of stroke
Paralysis, aphasia, inontinence
A neurobehavioral congenital disorder characterized by delayed motor development, mild to moderate mental retardation, and notable impairment in visual and spatial functioning. Children display hyperacusis, responsiveness to music, and a social and verbal fluency.
Having feelings of dejection, misery, and underestimation of self.
A nonarticular rheumatic disorder, also known as myofascial pain syndrome, characterized by pain, stiffness and extreme tenderness in the muscles
Consistency of results or observations
An observational recording system in which one notates whether or not a behavior is occurring during a specific interval of time.
planned activity check (PLACHECK)
An observational recording system in which one notates the number of group participants engaged in a target behavior at the end of a predetermined observation interval
A measure of agreement between observers which may be calculated as the number of agreements between observers divided by the total number of agreements and disagreements, times 100.
A cue which results in a response when that response occurs only after its presentation and not after other cues
Melodic Intonation Therapy
Clinical use of melodies which emphasize intonation in normal speech to develop language skills in aphasic patients and others requiring remediation in propositional language.
the removal of a stimulus resulting in a decrease in behavior
Placing an item into a preexisting schema
Creating a new schema upon learning new information
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Level 1 -Physiological Needs (food, water, sex)
Level 2 -Safety and Security (shelter)
Level 3 -Social (love, friends, belonging, family)
Level 4 -Self Esteem
Level 5 -Self Actualization (achieved potential)
Counting the number of times a specific behavior occurs within a given time frame
Observing and making note of all target behaviors that occur within a specific time frame
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Ability to pretend develops.
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 7 to 12 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Characterized by increasing language skills and awareness of relationships among/between things.
Improved social interaction and understanding of conversation
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory experiences and motor activities.
Object permanence and separation anxiety develop.
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Originally Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975), now enacted as IDEA (2004).
Services for students ages 3-5 and ages 6-21.
Early intervention services for ages birth to 2 years.
IDEA Principle #1
Students may not be excluded from education services due to a disability no matter how severe the disability
IDEA Principle #2
Nonbiased and nondiscriminatory evaluation tools must be used to determine if a student has a disability that negatively affects the ability to benefit from his/hereducation
IDEA Principle #3
Educational plan must be individualized for the student at no cost to the parent (FAPE). The Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) is developed for children ages birth-2, and the Individualized Education Program (IEP) is developed for students ages 3-21.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
IDEA Principle #4
Students with disabilities must be educated with students who do not have disabilities to the maximum extent possible for the student to benefit from the education experience. Students who cannot make progress in a general education setting may be educated in a more restrictive, less inclusive classroom.
Parent and Student Participation
IDEA Principle #6
Ensures parents' "students" rights to participate in the development, implementation, and decision-making process related to education services and placement
procedural due process
IDEA Principle #5
Process by which parents can challenge a decision made by the schools, consisting of procedural guidelines to protect students with disabilities from practices that deny their rights under IDEA
Principles of IDEA
1. Zero Reject
2. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
3. Appropriate Education
4. Least Restrictive Environment
5. Procedural Due Process
6. Parent and Student Participation
1. Specific Learning Disability
2. Speech/Language Impairment
3. Other Health Impairments (OHI)
4. Mental Retardation/Intellectual Impairment
5. Emotional Disturbance
6. Other Impairments/Disabilities
Sections of IDEA
Section A - basic foundation, defines terms used throughout act, creates Office of Special Education Programs
Section B - educational guidelines, provides funding for state and local districts if they follow 6 principles of IDEA
Section C - early intervention (birth to 2 years). Creation of IFSP, parent participation, timely resolution/due process
Section D - describes national activities to be undertaken to improve education of children with disabilities
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Legislation passed in 1990 that prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, state, local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, and transportation.
Stress, trauma, and disease that cause a person to age
movement of limbs outward/away from midline of body
Movement of limbs toward midline of body
In gait training, the degree to which a person's steps stay in rhythm
Ability to find and entrain to beat in music
Antecedents (antecedent stimuli)
Events which precede a behavior, sometimes setting the occasion for an occurrence of the behavior.
first awareness of sensory input. Precedes perception and cognition
The ability to follow and maintain a simple beat
not present at birth
Words created by patient often a blend of other words; "new" word
Rehabilitative process aimed at assisting persons with hearing impairments to maximize use of residual hearing
Fragile X Syndrome
A genetic condition that causes range of developmental problems including learning disabilities and cognitive impairment
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system in which the myelin sheaths surrounding nerve fibers degrade resulting in neuromuscular symptoms such as weakness in the limbs and sensory impairment
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Disorder caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy resulting in a variety of defects including intellectual disability, attention problems, growth deficiencies, and facial deformities
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD)
A disease in which air sacs of the lungs lose their elasticity and become overly porous, which can result in dyspnea, fatigue, and eventually lead to death.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Neurodegenerative disease which is terminal and progressive of the motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. Eventually leads to muscular paralysis.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
Emotional behavioral disorder characterized by persistent hostile and negative behavior. Causes functional difficulties.
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized speech, delusional thinking, hallucinations, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms.
Progressive disease characterized by cognitive defecits. Loss of ability to learn new information, remember previously learning information, or both.
Commonly comorbid with speech/language impairments, gross/fine motor impairments, recognition of familiar people/objects, social skills, self-care.
Orthopedic impairment and neurological condition. Types include spasticity, athetusis, rigidity, ataxia, tremor, mixed type, and atonia.
Reflects greatest insecurity, child shows confused and contradictory behavior. Parent holds child and child looks away.
Child feels intense distress upon separation, clingy and rejecting on return. Fear of strangers
Child is unconcerned by mother's absence and not responsive upon her return. Strongly avoidant of mother and strangers.
reactive attachemnt disorder
Very rare, infant or young child does not establish healthy attachments to caregivers
Child is upset/subdued when mother leaves, happy upon reunion. Avoidant of strangers when mother isn't present, but secure when mother is present.
Invalid belief that lacks evidence in reality
A problem in social behavior that interferes with the learning process
abnormally increased motor activity
less than normal amount of activity
person-centered treatment model
Carl Rogers' humanistic approach using unconditional positive regard. Uses indirect approach to guide patients to solve their own problems.
humanistic treatment model
Maslow, May, and Perls' models. Emotional problems result when individuals fail to find personal fulfillment or meaning in their lives.
neuroscientific treatment model
Physiological brain function needs to be treated
cognitive treatment model
Beck, Berne, and Ellis' models using self-evaluation. Disordered/irrational thought is root of problems, creating stress and feelings of inadequacy.
Experience sampling method
technique of gathering data in naturalistic settings. Participants are contacted randomly and asked to record current activity and/or feelings
multiple baseline design
A single subject ABA design in which a treatment is added successively to two or more subjects, behaviors, settings, or other similar units, while other conditions are held constant. The level of target behaviors is observed throughout the baseline and treatment conditions.
Qualitative analysis of text or narratives for common themes or emergent ideas
Sets with similar terms
Key descriptors for adaptive behaviors
Chapter 3: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
abnormal psych final revie
Clinical Child Psychology chapter 5-7
Sets found in the same folder
Music Therapy CBMT Exam
Standard remedial practices centered on the ability to train the impaired auditory system in the practices of listening and understanding acoustic information.
Which assessment tool would best measure Cognition for CALMS in a school-aged pediatric stuttering client?
(MC) Michael believes that he will be able to improve his public speaking skills after completing a speech course at school. Based on social-cognitive theory, one might observe that Michael is not lacking in:
Hans Eysenck would likely recommend eclectic psychotherapy as more effective than psychoanalysis.