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Rationalists vs Romantics
Terms in this set (40)
Rationalism: The belief that human beings can arrive at truth by ______________ rather than _____________
REASON rather than by relying on the authority of the past, religious faith, or intuition
Puritan time into the Rationalist time. What happened?
reason began to present a challenge to the unshakable faith of the Puritans
"I think, therefore I am"
"I believe so that I might understand"
in Rationalist time, ________ and _______ become more important than ______ and ________
REASON and LOGIC more imp't than FAITH and RELIGION
Was Jefferson a Romantic or Rationalist? What did Jefferson do to the Bible?
Rationalist: removed all references to supernatural aspects (miracles, angels, divinity, resurrection) he wanted it to show Jesus as a great moral teacher and nothing more
Another name for Rationalistic Period
"Age of Reason" or "The Enlightenment"
"I believe in one God, and no more; and I hope for happiness beyond this life"
Thomas Paine, rationalist
What were the Rationalists views of life after death?
they did not focus on hell or life after death; more concern with creating a better life on Earth
______ is The ability to think in an ordered, logical manner which enabled people to discover both scientific and spiritual truth
"Reason and free inquiry...are the natural enemies of error, and of error only."
Thomas Jefferson, rationalist
What did the Rationalists believe about perfectionism
they believed that people were able to perfect themselves through good works and self effort
Sir Isaac Newton (Rationalist) compared God to a ________
Clockmaker: the Great Machine must have a Mechanic or a Supreme Architect
__________: God had made it possible for ALL people at ALLL times to discover natural laws through their God-given power of reason (belief in God through Reason and Nature)
-universe was orderly and Good
- by using Reason, everyone could be perfect
- God's objective was happiness of his creatures
- there are punishments and rewards after life
-lived ethically rather than an organized religious institution
"Believe in Jesus and lead a moral life"
John Locke, deist
deists did not believe in
-literal interpretation of Bible
-going to church
what type of document is The Declaration of Independence
Reason thrived on (4 freedoms)
-freedom of speech
-freedom from arbitrary rules
-freedom to experiment
-freedom to question existing laws and institutions
How did the Age of Reason in the US differ from previous Rationalism movements in Europe?
American citizens could test new ideas as they created a new society
""What then is...this new man? He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds...[In America] individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors...will one day cause great changes in the world."
Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crevecoeur, Rationalist
rationalism was about ______
"We will walk with our own feet
we will work with our own hands
we will speak our own minds"
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Romantic Era Poet
things going on during Romantic era
Louisiana purchase (1803)
Gold Rush (1849)
Education and Reform
Rationalism vs Romanticism in terms of locations
rationalists: the city is a place to find success and self-realization
romantics: the countryside is associated with independence, moral clarity, healthful living
values of American Romanticism
-FEELING AND INTUITION over reason
-places faith in inner experience and the power of imagination
-shuns artificiality of civilization; seeks unspoiled nature
-youthful innocence over educated sophistication
-INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND THE WORTH OF THE INDIVIDUAL
-nature's beauty is a path to spiritual and moral development
Romantics see _______ as the highest expression of the imagination
where do Romantics find inspiration
myth, legent, folk culture
Romantics rose to higher truths through
- exploration of the past and of exotic (supernatural) realms (Gothic Novel, old legends and folklore)
- contemplation of the natural world (lyric poetry) and its underlying beauty and truth
The New American NOVEL
The Last of the Mohicans
-by James Fenimore Cooper
-Natty Bumpo: new kind of hero
-triumph of American innocence
New American NOVELISTS
-Herman Melville: (ex-sailor) MOBY DICK
-Nathaniel Hawthorne: SCARLET LETTER
-James Fenimore Cooper: Last of the Mohicans
what are the Fireside Poets
-opposite of novelists, worked within European literary traditions
-used English themes, meter, imagery with American settings and subjects
Who are some Fireside Poets
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
John Greenleaf Whittier
Oliver Wendel Holmes
James Russell Lowell
The idea that in determining the ultimate reality of God, the universe, the self, and other important matters, one must transcend, or go beyond, everyday human experience in the physical world.
Who was a transcendentalist?
-Ralph Waldo Emerson (influenced by ancient Greek- Plato)
-henry David Thoreau
What is Transcendentalism BASED on
-Puritan belief and Romantics
-intuition and optimism
Realm of Darkness
explored conflicts between good and evil, psychological effects of guilt and sin, and madness
HAD MUCH IN COMMON WITH TRANSCENDENTALISTS
5 I's of Romanticism
What makes a story Gothic?
A Gothic story portrays a darker side of human nature, the natural world, and supernatural world. Gothic literature can contain imagination, both good and evil, powerful/terrifying forces of nature, and corruption of the soul. These stories express that there is no way to escape the past and that education can make the soul stray from its true self and nature. Gothic writers create creepy, suspenseful events by placing the reader in a dark atmosphere.
rip van winkle
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