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World History Mid Term
Terms in this set (32)
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange. This is when the parliment started to become more powerful than the king.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Very Infulencial in the american revolution.
(1712-1778) Author Social Contract, More radical political philosopher, people have to surrender liberties for common good, owning property need laws, people make own laws. Influential in French Revolution
1789-1799. Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions. Considered the starting point of modern age.
the ideology of the most radical element of the French Revolution that instituted the Reign of Terror. Its
usage now a days is for underground radical movements.
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena. A brilliant military strategist.
Rise of Nationalism
the desire of peoples to establish unified political states and their belief in the superiority of their own nations 1790-Today
Treaty of Nanjing
"unequal treaty" to end Opium War in which China had to accept British terms for peace creating an open door policy for the rest of europe to trade with in. 1842
(1857-1859) A revolt by the hired Hindu and Muslim soldiers of the British East India Company. It began as a result of the rifle cartridges that were distributed to the Sepoys had to be bitten to remove a cover before being inserted into a gun. Rumors circulated among the Sepoys that this cover had been greased with beef and pork fat. This angered Muslim Sepoys who were not supposed to consume pork, and the Hindu Sepoys who were not supposed to eat beef. Thus, the Sepoys revolted against the British army, which eventually ended the conflict through use of force. This resulted in the British government officially taking control of India, making it a colony.
Battle of Plassey
In 1757, the British defeated a leading Indian prince. 3,000 British against 80,000 Indians. The victory broke France's strength in India.
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industiralize. This Created a dominance of French and British in Europe.
Annexation of Hawaii
U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898
1898 - America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuaban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism
1839-1842, it was fought between the British and Chinese over the opium trade. The British were ultimately victorious, and the war ended in the Treaty of Nanjing. Helped with semi-colonialism.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
(1850-1864) revolt against the Qing dynasty in China led by Hong Xiuquan, a convert to Christianity; over 20 million Chinese died; eventually suppressed with British and French aid. A Massive loss of people.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
The period of time from 1867 to 1912, where the Japanese were under a new form of government. The leader tried to end Japan's problems by modernizing, and sending statesmen to Europe and North America to study foreign ways. This helped strengthen economic and military power.
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference. Latin America was US back yard.
(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
an emerging dictator who came up with a new idea to make even more money. He charged American investors to have access to trade in Mexico. He became very rich as American investors poured money into Mexico. American's owned 50% of Mexican oil, 2/3 of the railroad industry, and ¾ mining industry. This left Mexicans in dire poverty.
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
Was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti; in a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule. "The Liberator"
19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
A theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of "the greatest happiness for the greatest number." Bentham argued that this principle should be applied to each nation's government, economy, and judicial system.
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Industrial Revolution in great britain
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Unification of Germany
1871, unified under Bismarck uses spirit of nationalism provoked by the Napoleonic wars; nationalist based on language and religion and culture (not civic nationalism like the French); what we get is "the worship of the state"; state not just agency that regulates relationships but a spiritual corporation; nationalism was an integrative force; Bismarck able to use reactionary nationalism to create modern nation-state; Huge German power in the center of Europe cause imbalance of power; threatened the system
Unification of Italy
1860, ally of Mazzini, recruited volunteers and won control of Sicily. Next, Garibaldi turned Naples and Sicily over to Victor Emmanuel. Last, Italy becomes a united nation, which it hadn't been since the fall of the Roman Empire.
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