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Psychology 206 chapter 1 test
Terms in this set (51)
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
medical specialty area focused on the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of mental and behavioral disorders
William James (1842-1910)
First American psychologist and author of the first psychology textbook
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies - coming to a conclusion
to repeat, to copy, or to duplicate
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
research methods that involve observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a research project designed to discover the degree to which two variables are related to each other
as one variable increases, the other decreases
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
the participants in an expriment who receives the drug or other treatment under study- that is those who are exposed to the change that the independent variables represent
a fake drug used in the testing of medication
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Father of psychology. German physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
A culture in which people believe that their primary responsibility is to themselves.
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
American Psychological Association (APA)
preferred reference manual for social science communication scholars
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Austrian neurologist known for his work on the unconscious mind. Father of psychoanalysis.
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
American psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the U.S.; founded the American Psychological Association
Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
data collected through direct observation
A factor that can change in an experiment
refers to a result that is statistically unlikely to have occurred by chance
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
Humanistic psychologist who developed client-centered therapy and stressed the importance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
- Expanded the basic ideas of behaviorism to include the idea of reinforcement and punishment -- environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses
- Helped establish and popularize the operant conditioning model of learning
- Skinner's intellectual influence lasted for decades
Francis Sumner (1895-1954)
first African American awarded Ph.D. in psychology
the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of the whole.
a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.
gathering primary data by selecting matched groups of subjects, giving them different treatments, controlling related factors, and checking for differences in group responses
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
An experimental control in which neither the participants nor the researchers interacting with the participants are aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)
American psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality and dreams. First woman president of the American Psychological Association. Developed theory of self-psychology and a technique for studying verbal learning.
the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
investigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups
societies that prize social harmony, obedience, and close family connectedness over individual achievement
ethics in research
informed consent, freedom from coercion, protection from harm, risk-benefit analysis, deception, debriefing, confidentiality
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