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SO309 Exam 1
Terms in this set (66)
_______________: the study of dying, death, and bereavement
Our society has done little to achieve formal ______________ of its members to deal with death on personal and emotional levels
Today's lack of familiarity with death may be in part due to fewer individuals raised on ____________ than was the case in the early 20th century
____________ is generally associated with lower death anxiety, thus it plays a protective role in terror management.
_________ ___________ Theory suggests that people adhere to cultural worldviews and beliefs in order to suppress death and mortality-related thoughts.
Some of the earliest television programs to discuss death appeared in the early ____________.
Dr. ________ ____________: his "suicide machine" to terminate the life of a terminally ill patient with Alzheimer's disease in Michigan in 1990 drew headlines in the media.
In 2010 the Supreme Court of ______________, not the voters, ruled that state law protects doctors from prosecution for helping terminally ill patients die.
Some of the goals of death education are to promote _____________ about death, explain the developmental processes of death _________________, integrate the dying with the __________, heighten ______________ about cultural variations in dying, death and grief, and appreciate the universal and individual course of the grief experience.
One of the early texts for thanatology, published in 1959, was an anthology by psychologist Herman Feifel entitled The ____________ of ____________.
meaning of death
__________ rates have been declining in most developed countries since the mid-1800s.
The cause of death (___________) for nearly half of us will be from one or two chronic diseases--heart disease or cancer
__________ ____________ has increased considerably in the US since 1900, when it was 47 at birth.
Despite the fact that men die earlier and have more life-threatening illnesses, women have higher ____________ (illness) rates than men
There are two primary areas of study in in dying an death. There is the _________ sciences (biological approach) and the ____________ sciences (sociological approach).
Research on death anxiety has been almost exclusively conducted by psychologists. Death anxiety (fear) might involve the unkown, the nature of one's identity, fear of growing old (______________), and immortality, and continues across the life span.
A _______________ approach to dying and death looks at death denial in different cultures, examines the influence of mass media desensitization, and studies death denial in both patients and physicians.
An _____________ ______________ approach to death is a rather practical one and suggests that we must all face death.
An offshoot of the existentialist philosophical perspective is ________________. This aspect of philosophy studies "the thing itself"--the phenomenon.
________________ study rituals through which people deal with death and hence celebrate life.
The ______________ approach to the study of dying and death generally includes four theories: structural-functional theory, conflict theory, social exchange theory, and symbolic interaction theory.
Structural functionalists are interested in positive (______________) and negative (________________) results of social interaction as well as the intended (_____________) and unintended (_____________) consequences of death-related behavior.
The foundation of symbolic interaction theory is that _____________ (meanings) are a basic component of human behavior.
The symbolic interaction perspective can be summarized in what some have called the ________ statement--individual level behavior is in response to symbols, relative to the audience, and relative to the situation
____________ _____________—ALLOWS RESPIRATORS TO BE TURNED OFF WHEN THE BRAIN IS "TOTALLY AND IRREVERSIBLY" DEAD.
Four of the most important variable employed in epidemiological research are:
age, gender, race, and social class
It is projected that by the year 2050 the percent of people over age 65 will have increased to ______
THIS HISTORICAL SHIFT IN DISEASE PATTERNS IS TERMED _______________ _________________—AND IS CHARACTERIZED MAINLY BY A REDISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS FROM THE YOUNG TO THE OLD.
____________________ IS THE STUDY OF THE PATTERNS OF HEALTH AND DISEASE.
___________ _____________ ________________--IT IS BELIEVED THAT SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS PRODUCES HEALTH STATUS BECAUSE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS'S INTERMEDIATE EFFECTS ON SANITATION, PREVENTIVE HEALTH BEHAVIOR AND ACCESS TO MEDICAL CARE.
Social Class Explanation
________ _______________--ARGUES THAT THOSE WHO CONTRACT DISABLING DISEASES DRIFT DOWNWARD IN SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS DURING THEIR LIFETIME. THE DISABILITIES OF THE CHRONICALLY ILL KEEP THEM FROM GETTING BETTER JOBS REFLECTING THEIR FORMER ILLNESS-FREE CAPABILITY.
THE PATTERNS OF INTERACTION AMONG THE MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY ARE PART OF THAT SOCIETY'S __________ ______________.
ROBERT KASTENBAUM INTRODUCED THE CONCEPT OF THE "_________ _______________" TO DESCRIBE THE ELEMENTS OF SOCIETY THAT HAVE AN IMPACT ON HOW PEOPLE DEAL WITH DYING AND DEATH.
__________ __________: the brain is totally and irreversibly dead. This is sometimes referred to as the Harvard definition of death.
__________________: a method of subjecting a corpse to extremely low temperatures through the use of dry ice and liquid nitrogen
________________: Referring to a type of nonlinear relationship between two variables where at a certain point, associated with the increasing values in the independent variable, the relationship with the dependent variable changes. A scattergram graph of this relationship will look like either a letter U or an inverted U.
_____________ _____________: a learned emotional response to death-related phenomena characterized by extreme apprehension; used synonymously with death fear.
__________: two units regarded as a pair (e.g., a husband and a wife)
________________: a word or phrase that is considered less distasteful than other words or phrases.
________________ of __________________: Modern science defines illness and health procedures needed (for example, tonsil removal was fairly routine with children in the 1940s and 1950s because medical science deemed it so) and determines procedures for the dying which may prolong or shorten life. Not unline childbirth via convenient-for-the-doctor Cesarean sections, modern medicine somewhat controls when we die and can control premature deaths.
Medicalization of Death
_____________: Ways of society that are felt to be for the good of society. These are "must" behaviors that have stronger sanctions that a folkway (e.g., eating three meals per day) but that are not as severe as laws.
_________________: Notice of a death, usually with a brief biography.
________________: The extent of interest, commitment, or participation in religious values, beliefs, and activities.
______________ _____________: A person to whom special significance is given in the process of reaching decisions.
_________________: All living thins eventually die. Death is all-inclusive, inevitable and unavoidable.
_________________: Organisms that die cannot be made alive again.
________________: Death involves the cessation of all physiological functioning, or signs of life.
____________________: There are biological reasons for the occurrence of death.
A child's understanding of death evolves greatly from about ages ____ to ____. During this period most children come to understand that death is final, universal, and inevitable.
5 to 9
Acquiring a mature understanding of death is part of the developmental process known as socialization.
____________________________: is a social process that involves learning and internalizing the norms, rules and values of the society in which we live.
___________________: can be defined as "a group of people who share a common culture, a common territory, and a common identity; and who feel themselves to constitute a unified and distinct entity which involves interacting in socially structured relationships."
___________________: refers to all the ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that people have as members of a given society. It is "all that in human society which is socially rather than biologically transmitted."
_______________ _____________: consists of things--manufactured objects
___________ _____________: refers to aspects of culture that lie in the realm of ideas, beliefs, values, and customs. These elements are dynamic--they are subject to change as the members of a society reevaluate inherited beliefs, values, customs, and so on in the light of circumstances and experiences.
_____________________ refers to the "uprooting and restructuring of basic attitudes, values, or identitites."
-It occurs when adults take on new roles that require replacing their existing values and modes of behavior
-ex: religious conversion, new job, getting married, death of a mate
Very few of us experience ______________ ________________--strategies that hospice caregivers, for example, use to informally teach people about death and dying
-It involves a deliberate and active effort to change other people's perceptions and behaviors about some aspect of their social world.
_________________: The family is the foundational social institution in all societies although the definition of family varies from place to place and time to time. In the routines and events of daily life, the beliefs and values of parents are transmitted to their children. Parental attitudes and the attitudes of other family members, shape the values and behaviors not only of the child but also of the adult that the child will become, and they influence how that adult conveys attitudes toward death to his or her own children.
______________ and ______________: Schools teach more than "Reading, writing, and arithmetic." The social world of a child is dramatically broadened during the school years, partly because of greater opportunities for interactions with peers.
School and Peers
Gender difference between death in junior high students
___________ tended to place higher value on funerals and express more concern about what happens to bodies after death.
On the issue of capital punishment, __________ were equally divided pro and con; _________ tended to express uncertainty or opposition.
Asked to describe their beliefs about life after death, ______________ were more decisive and ___________ more variable in their beliefs.
The Meaning of Dying and Death
The ____________ Meaning -- dying is more than a biological process
-Drawing meaning from the _______________
-Drawing meaning from the _______________
-Death as a ___________ ______________
Contemporary Attitudes Toward Death
Denying death--the use of ______________
-Buffers us from death
Fearing death--types of death fears:
-The pain in the dying process
-The isolation, separation and rejection that can be part of the dying process
-The leaving of loved ones
-Concerns about the afterlife
-The finality of death
-The fate of the body
A child's first experience with death is often the death of an ______________.
Death in _______________ easier to comprehend for children than death in ________________.
Piaget believed that we create ______________ to deal with the world.
_____________ are organized patterns of behavior and perception that one constructs to interpret some aspect of one's experience.
Piaget sometimes used the term _____________ _____________.
Schemes are modified over time through one of two processes
_________________ refers to the process by which new stimuli are incorporated into existing schemes.
_______________ involves a process by which present schemes are modified or new schemes are created.
_______________ __________________: Birth to two years, infants are primarily tied to the "here and now" (i.e. they have no concept of the future) and their processing of the world is dependent on sensory perceptions and motor activities.
______________ ______________: 2 Years to 7 Years. Characterized by:
-___________________: Children can only think of things that have a counterpart in the physical world
-___________________: Preoperational children centrate, or focus, on a single prominent characteristic of an object to the exclusion of others.
-__________________: refers to the inability to process information from another's viewpoint. Preoperational children assume that what they believe is correct.
-_________________: young children are unable to understand that something may change and then return to its original state (ex: cannot understand that a pill broken in half is still equivalent to a whole)
-___________________: the belief that inanimate objects are alive.
-________________: young children are often unable to totally separate fantasy from reality
-_______________ _______________: Adults' thinking is characterized by inductive reasoning from specific examples to a general rule, or deductive reasoning, moving from a general rule to a specific case. Preoperational children use transductive reasoning, which is based on reasoning from the particular to the particular, or specific to specific. (ex: learning that you can catch a cold also means that you can catch a brain tumor.)
School-age children between the ages of approximately 7 and 11 are commonly capable of thinking at the _______________ _________________ level. Children in this stage are bound by immediate physical reality and cannot transcend the here and now.
________________ egocentrism: much more clearly and consistently understand that others may think differently from the way they do. Older children then, care about what their peers think about them.
____________________: Consider multiple factors simultaneously. They understand that a friend can be happy and worried at the same time.
___________________: can reverse the thought processes. Understand that father is ill but remembers that father was once well and can be well again.
___________________: able to understand that certain characteristics of an object do not change even if other dimensions are transformed.
________________: able to perceive intermediate steps that lead up to a particular outcome. Younger children perceive only the final stage.
_______________ _______________: although though has become more logical, school-age children still hold some magical beliefs. (ex: lucky underwear)
___________ _____________: Adolescence/Adulthood involves abstract thinking
Speece and Brent (1992)
What is the pattern of acquisition among the three component of a mature understanding of death (The components are nonfunctionality, irreversibility, and universality)
A majority of children understood the concept of ________________ by kindergarten.
The following two values, ____________ and ___________, are acquired sequentially and by the time children are 10 they have a mature understanding of all three of these concepts.
__________________ is the training period between childhood and adulthood in the life experience of humans.
Composed of two significant periods:
The period between ____________ and __________ which encompasses the acquiring of formal logical thought, the onset of biological sexuality, the growth of the physical structure, and myriad psychological tasks.
The second period, from ___________ to __________ is characterized by the completion of physical maturation, increasing intimacy with the opposite sex, continued acquisition of adult social skills, clarification of ethics and values, and the ability to make long-term commitments to persons and goals.
12 and 15
16 to 19
_____________ ______________: a communicable disease cased by a number of microorganisms including viruses, fungi, and bacteria. Acute illnesses last for a relatively short period of time and result either in recovery or death.
Approximately half of the deaths taking place in the US can be attributed to two chronic diseases: ________________ _____________ and ______________
heart disease and cancer
mortality differences between men and women are expected to ______________.
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