Semester 2: Cell Structure and Functions, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Cell Division and Introduction to Genetics.
Terms in this set (131)
The light-independent reactions take place outside the thylakoids, in the ___________________.
Plants that live in dry conditions often have waxy coatings on their leaves to reduce water loss. They may also have _____________________ adaptations that make photosynthesis more efficient under dry conditions.
Which organelle breaks down other organelles that are no longer useful?
Which of the organisms enclose their DNA in a nucleus?
Which structure in the plant cell stores materials, such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates?
Where are proteins synthesized in the cell?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into usable energy?
What is the function of the cell membrane?
To regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell
Diffusion occurs because
Molecules constantly move and collide with each other.
An animal cell that is surrounded by fresh water (hypotonic solution) will burst because the osmotic pressure causes____________
Water to move into the cell causing it to swell.
The three main principles of cell theory are;
Cells are the basic units of life, all living things are made of cells and all cells are produced from existing cells.
What is the function of the cytoskeleton in cells?
Helps a cell keep its shape
Which structures are involved in cell movement?
Microtubules and microfilaments
Serves as the cell's boundary from its environment
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
In plants, _______________ capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy.
Some materials can move across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient by ______________________
A cell's relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions are called __________________
Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ___________________ attached to it.
Site of protein synthesis
In which organelle are the lipid components of the cell membrane assembled?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
Organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles
Unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles; circular DNA
A specialized part of a cell
Hollow tubes made of the protein tubulin. They support the cell and moves organelles within the cell
Long, thin fibers made of the protein actin, that function in the movement and support of the cell.
A type of cell characterized by the presence of centrioles and lacking a cell wall and vacuole.
Contains a cell wall, chloroplast and large vacuole
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Functions of proteins
1. Transport of specific solutes into or out of cells.
2. Enzymatic activity, sometimes catalyzing one of a number of steps of a metabolic pathway
3. Signal transduction, relaying hormonal messages to the cell.
4. Cell-cell recognition, allowing other proteins to attach two adjacent cells together
5. Intercellular joining of adjacent cells with gap or tight junctions
6. Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, maintaining cell shape and stabilizing the location of certain membrane proteins.
Small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
Most of the time, the green color of the chlorophyll _______________ the other pigments, but as temperatures drop and chlorophyll molecules break down, the red and orange pigments may be seen
Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
The first set of reactions is known as the ____________________ because they require the direct involvement of light and light-absorbing pigments
The ability to do work
Energy from the sun travels to Earth in the form of ______________________
The thylakoid membrane contains a protein called __________________ that spans the membrane and allows H+ ions to pass through it.
The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ______________and _________________.
ATP and NADPH
During the daytime, when leaves of CAM plants are tightly sealed to prevent water loss, these compounds release ________________________ enabling carbohydrate production.
________________________, a series of electron carriers that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
Electron transport chain
One way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to carry out ________________
Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and complete the process of photosynthesis by producing sugars and ______________.
A process that enables light-dependent electron transport to produce not only NADPH, but ATP as well.
The fluid portion surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Thylakoids contain clusters of chlorophyll and proteins known as______________________
Cells can release the energy stored in __________________ by breaking the bonds between the second and third phosphate groups.
High light intensity _________________ the rate of photosynthesis.
Reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
The process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
ATP powers movement, providing the energy for motor proteins that contract muscle and power the movement of____________________
Organisms that obtain food by consuming other living things are known as ________________
Plants also contain red and orange pigments such as _____________ that absorb light in other regions of the spectrum.
Photosynthesis takes place inside organelles called _______________
Leaves reflect _____________, which is why plants look green.
As it rotates, ATP synthase binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ____________________.
H+ ions accumulate within the ___________________ from the splitting of water and from being pumped in from the stroma
Members of the Crassulacae family, such as cacti and succulents, incorporate carbon dioxide into organic acids during photosynthesis in a process called _______________________________ (CAM)
Crassulacean acid metabolism
Factors that affect photosynthesis
Temperature,carbon dioxide, water and light intensity.
Where do organisms get energy?
Cellular respiration, food provides living things with the chemical building blocks they need to ______________and __________________
Grow and reproduce
The Krebs cycle and electron transport chain are both aerobic processes. Both processes take place inside the____________________
H+ ions pass back across the mitochondrial membrane through the ATP synthase, causing the ATP synthase molecule to spin. With each rotation, the enzyme________________________ attaches a phosphate to ADP to produce ATP
Energy stored in food is expressed in units of_______________
During glycolysis, the electron carrier NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) accepts a pair of high-energy electrons and becomes __________
Following intense exercise, a person will huff and puff for several minutes in order to pay back the built-up ________________ and clear the lactic acid from the body.
Cells break down food molecules gradually and use the energy stored in the chemical bonds to produce compounds such as _______________ that power the activities of the cell.
Pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis is a reactant in the _____________________
NADH carries the high-energy electrons to the last process of cellular respiration _________________________, where they can be used to produce more ATP.
Electron transport chain
hotosynthesis releases ______________________ into the atmosphere, and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energy from food.
In the presence of oxygen, the complete breakdown of glucose through cellular respiration results in the production of ____________________
A process by which energy can be released from food molecules in the absence of oxygen. Fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of cells is known as ________________________
Gylcolysis is doesnt require oxygen to run, therefore it is considered an _________________ process
The _____________________ produces the bulk of the energy in cellular respiration by using oxygen, a powerful electron acceptor.
Electron transport chain
The Krebs cycle is also known as ___________________
Photosynthesis removes ___________________ from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back.
The body stores energy in the form of the _____________________________.
Most of glucose's energy (90%) remains locked in the chemical bonds of ______________________ at the end of glycolysis
At the end of the electron transport chain, the electrons combine with H+ ions and oxygen to form ________________
Food molecules contain _______________________ that is released when its chemical bonds are broken
Once pyruvic acid is in the mitochondrial matrix, NAD+ accepts 2 high-energy electrons to form NADH.The remaining 2 carbon atoms react to form_______________
If oxygen is available, organisms can obtain energy from food by a process called ________________________
Advantages of glycolysis
Glycolysis produces ATP very fast and It doesn't require oxygen
Three stages of cellular respiration
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport System
Cell differentiation in mammals is controlled by a number of interacting factors in the ___________________
Most prokaryotic cells begin to replicate, or copy their ____________ once they have grown to a certain size.
A growing cell makes greater demands on its genetic _______________________ if the cell gets too big, the DNA would not be able to serve the needs of the growing.
As a cell grows, critical information stored in the cell's DNA is used to _________________________ needed for cell growth.
The genetic information that is passed on from one generation of cells to the next is stored in the _______________________
During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form _______________
Two daughter cells
In _____________________________, offspring are produced by the fusion of two sex cells - one from each of two parents.
Kalanchoe plants regenerate by forming_______ ___________
During cell division, ______________________ is the division of the cytoplasm
A family of proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells are known as ______________
Bacteria reproduce by __________
Before a cell grows too large, it divides into two new "daughter" cells in a process called __________________________
The process by which cells become specialized is known as ____________________
The rate at which exchange of food and nutrients takes place in the cell depends on _______________________
In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are located in the nucleus, and are made up of_____________
Binary fission is a form of _____________________ during which two genetically identical cells are produced.
Cells of every organism have a specific number of ________________________
Food, oxygen, and water enter a cell through _____________________.
The cells of the inner cell mass are said to be ____________________ which means that they are capable of developing into many, but not all, of the body's cell types.
Proteins that respond to events outside the cell are known as _________________? They direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle. External regulators that stimulate the growth and division of cells. They are important during embryonic development and wound healing.
The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent is known as __________________________________
Living cells store critical information in_____________________
After about four days of development, a human embryo forms into a ________________________ a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside known as the inner cell mass.
A process of programmed cell death is known as ______________________.This process plays a role in development by shaping the structure of tissues and organs in plants and animals
Cancer cells divide uncontrollably to form a mass of cells called a ________________________
A damaged or defective ________________________ is common in cancer cells. It causes cells to lose the information needed to respond to growth signals.
Unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions
A disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control cell growth is called ______________________
________________________ is the use of compounds that kill or slow the growth of cancer cells.
The different forms of a gene are called ___________________
A ______________ is a specific characteristic of an individual, such as seed color or plant height, and may vary from one individual to another.
Scientists call the factors that are passed from parent to offspring ________________
A gene with more than two alleles is said to have ______________________
As homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrads, they undergo a process called _____________________
Mendel knew that the female portion of each flower produces reproductive cells called _____________
When doing genetic crosses, we call the original pair of plants the _________________________
_____________________ is a process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
During sexual reproduction, male and female reproductive cells join in a process known as ___________________ to produce a new cell
The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits are called _______________
An allele that will not determine the phenotype unless the genotype is homozygous in that allele
The allele that determines the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene.
A term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
A term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
A term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its genetic make up.
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis