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Research Methods Ch 1-2
Terms in this set (96)
A perspective that emphasizes how different stakeholders in social settings construct thier beliefs
A research method for systematically analyzing and making inferences from text
Geographical mapping strategies used to visualize a number of things including location, distance, and patterns of crime and their correlates
Research in which social phenomena are defined and descirbed
A branch of philosophy that studies how knowledge is gained or acquired
Research about social programs or interventions
An approach in which the researcher randomly assigns individuals to two or more groups in a way that equates that characteristics of individuals in the groups, except for variation in the groups' exposure to the independent variable
Research in which social phenomena are investigated without a priori expectations to develop explanations of them
Research with a focus on women's lives that often includes an orientation to personal experience, subjective orientations, the researcher's standpoint, and emotions
Research in which social events of only one time period in the past are studied
Historical Events Research
Prematurely jumping to conclusions and arguing on the basis of invalid assumptions
Observations based on faulty perceptions of empirical reality
Open-ended, relatively unstructured questioning in which the interviewer seeks in-depth information on the interviewee's feelings, experiences, and/or perceptions
The belief that reality is socially constructed and that the goal of social scientists is to understand what meanings people give to that reality. Max Weber termed the goal of interpretivist research verstehen (understanding)
Agreement between scientists about the nature of reality; often upheld as a more reasonable goal for science that certainty about an objective reality
Combining both qualitative and quantitative methods to study one research question
An error in reasoning that occurs when we conclude that what we have observed or know to be true for a subset of cases holds true for the entire set
Field research in which a researcher develops a sustained and intensive relationship with people while they go about their normal activities
Research in which the researcher involves some organizational members as active participants throughout the process of studying an organization; the goal is making changes in the organization
Participatory Action Research (PAR)
A now defunct filed of study, once considered a science in the 19th century, which held that bumps and fissures of the skull determined the character and personality of a person
The belief that there is a reality that exists quite apart from our own perception of it, although our knowledge of this reality may never be complete
Dubious but fascinating claims that are touted as "scientifically proven" and bolstered by fervent, public testimonials of believers who have experienced firsthand or have claimed to have witnessed the phenomenon; however, such evidence is not based on the principles of the scientific method
Methods such as participant observation, intensive interviewing, and focus groups that are designed to capture social life as participants experience it rather than in categories predetermined by the researcher. Data that are treated as qualitative are mostly written or spoken words or observations that do not have a direct numerical interpretation
Methods such as surveys and experiments that record variation in social life in terms of categories that vary in amount. Data that are treated as quantitative are either numbers or attributes that can be ordered in terms of magnitude
The survey instrument containing the questions for a self administered survery
Reluctance to change ideas in light of new information due to ego-based commitments, excessive devotion to tradition, or uncritical agreement with authorities
Resistance to Change
Analysis of data collected by someone other than the researcher or the researcher's assistant
Secondary Data Analysis
Observations chosen because they are in accord with preferences or beliefs of the observer
A set of logical, systematic, documented methods for investigating nature and natural processes; the knowledge produced by these investigations
The use of scientific methods to investigate individuals, societies, and social processes, including questions related to criminology and criminal justice; the knowledge produced by these investigations
Popular and versatile research instruments using a question format; surveys can be self-administered or read by an interviewer
An important feature of the scientific method that requires procedures, methods, and data analyses of any study to be presented clearly for the purposes of replication
The use of multiple methods to study one research question; also used to mean the use of two or more different measures of the same vairable
A new student observes that in his first class, the people in the back row answer most of the questions, so in the next class, he sits with the back row, concluding that this is where the smartest students sit. What is wrong with his reasoning?
The General Social Survey is administered to a sample of U.S. residents, but it hopes to identify features of the U.S. population as a whole. In other words, the GSS hopes for:
"Does gender have an effect on income? Do men, on average, make more than women?" These are examples of what kind of research questions?
Which of the following is a component of science?: logical methods, systematic methods, documented methods, all of these?
All of these
When the state approved stronger penalties for drunk driving, including the automatic suspension of driving privileges, the number of highway deaths related to drunk driving decreased. This observation suggests which kind of social research?
According to Putnam's explanatory research, people "bowl alone" in the United States because which of the following has occurred during the last few decades in the 20th century?
Social ties have weakened
The extent to which a researcher's sample is representative of the population that it was drawn from is called:
T/F: Overgeneralizations occur when people conclude that what is true for some cases is true for all cases.
T/F: Evaluation research can be used to describe the impact of social programs.
T/F: When the findings of a study accurately represent empirical reality, the results are said to be reliable.
T/F: Internal validity is also referred to as casual validity.
T/F: Researchers can rely on gender as disclosed in forums when identifying differences in usage patterns between men and women.
T/F: To reduce the risk of illogical reasoning, social researchers use explicit criteria for identifying causes and for determining whether these criteria are met in a particular instance.
T/F: Descriptive research suggests how social phenomena (such as neighborhood characteristics_ affect other social phenomena (such as youth outcomes)
T/F: Through systematic sampling and measurement, social science can overcome selective and inaccurate observation.
T/F: A hypothesis suggests that the change in the independent variable creates change in the dependent variable.
T/F: A theory is a tentative statement about empirical reality including a relationship between two or more variables.
T/F: Deductive research begins the research process with empirical generalizations, from which a hypothesis is derived.
T/F: When the independent variable decreases, so does the dependent variable. This pattern is known as a positive direction of association.
T/F: In a panel design, data are collected from the same individuals at multiple points in time.
T/F: Serendipitous patterns stimulate new ideas and theoretical approaches for continuing lines of research.
T/F: An example of a panel study would be to conduct a survey of people born in the 1950s at one point in time.
Megan considered the median income and median value of homes in different cities to measure economic inequality. What is the unit of analysis in her study?
Beth tested whether an individual's attitudes about homosexuality varied by how frequently the individual attended religious services. What is Beth's dependent variable?
Attitudes about homosexuality
The General Social Survey draws a sample of about 1,500 people every 2 years. This is an example of what type of research design?
The scientific relevance of a research question refers to its ability to:
Exists when the understanding of a social process or social setting is one that reflects fairly the various perspectives of participants in the setting
Exists when a conclusion that A leads to or results in B is correct; also called internal validity
A number that has a fixed value in a given situation; a characteristic or value that does not change
Exists when findings about one group, population, or setting hold true for other groups, populations, or settings; also called external validity
The type of reasoning that moves from the general to the specific
A variable that is hypothesized to change or vary depending on the variation in another variable
Statements that describe patterns found in data
The rate of crime in a community per 1,000 residents (example)
Example of a Dependent Variable
The higher the level of poverty in a community, the higher its rate of crime is (example)
Example of a hypothesis
Being capable of being proven wrong; that is, having the capacity to be empirically tested and falsified
A tentative statement about empirical reality involving the relationship between two or more variables
A variable that is hypothesized to cause, or lead to, variation in another variable
The type of reasoning that moves from the specific to the general
The type of research in which specific data are used to develop (induce) a general explanation
The type of validity that is achieved when a measure measures what it is presumed to measure
When a research study is conducted again using the same research methods to answer the same research question to determine if the original findings occur again
A diagram of the elements of the research process, including theories, hypotheses, data collection, and data analysis
A question that is answered through the collection and analysis of firsthand, verifiable, empirical data
Exists when a conclusion based on a sample, or subset, of a larger population holds true for that population
Unexpected patterns in data that stimulate new ideas or theoretical approaches
Serendipitous Findings (Anomalous Findings)
Parts of a theory that describe what is important to look at to understand, explain, predict, and "do something about" the subject
A logically interrelated set of propositions about empirical reality; examples of criminological theories include social learning, routine activities, labeling, general strain, and social disorganization theory
A characteristic or property that can vary (take on different values or attributes)
Which of the following is an example of a negative direction of association?
As number of hours of TV watched per week increases, number of hours spent reading per week decreases.
A cohort has which of the following characteristics?
A common starting point
Most sociological and psychological studies use which unit of analysis?
A researcher is planning a study looking at first-year college students and their experiences at a 4-year university. A sample of individuals from the first-year class is taken at Time 1, and data are gathered. A year passes, and some participants leave the study. However, the researcher gathers data from the same people from the first time, minus those who left. This is an example of what kind of study?
Bursik mentions the inaccurate portrayal of Jane Addams in criminological history. Though Jane Addams is known for the Hull House Movement, what kind of research does Bursik think she should receive more credit for?
Crime among second-generation immigrants
Deductive research involves:
Creating specific expectations drawn from general premises and then collecting data to confirm them
The primary focus of exploratory research is to:
Identify causes and/or effects of social phenomena
If one were to sample incarcerated juvenile delinquents from a female facility for a research project, their biological sex is: An independent variable, a variable, a hypothesis, a dependent variable, none of the above
None of the above
Bursik makes a distinction between two types of researchers in Criminology. They are:
Elephants and sweepers
Inductive research involves:
Beginning with specific data and producing general expectations
The primary focus of descriptive research is to:
Define and describe social phenomena of interest
Selective observation is best defined as:
Choosing to look only at things that align with our preferences or beliefs
Illogical reasoning is best defined as:
Prematurely jumping to conclusion or arguing on the basis of invalid assumptions
Overgeneralization is best defined as:
Concluding that what we have observed or what we know to be true for some cases is true for all cases
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