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Ch. 8 Basic Biomechanics
Terms in this set (43)
Study of forces and motions they produce
Application of mechanics to the study of the structure and function of the human body
Factors associated with moving systems
Factors associated with nonmoving systems
Kinetics deals with __________ causing movement. Kinematics involves which three aspects of a moving system__________________.
2. time space and matter
Osteokinematics deals with the movement of _________, and arthrokinematics deals with movement of _____________.
2. adjoining joints
Forces that cause motion
Amount of matter a body contains
Tendency of force to produce rotation
Push or pull action
Describes magnitude only.
Resistive force between two surfaces.
Magnitude and direction only.
Resistance to change motion.
A sail boat speeds up as the wind force accelerates.
Law of acceleration,
Newtons 2nd law of motion
The archer pulls back on the string and releases the arrow.
Law of action-reaction
Newtons 3rd law of motion
A person is pushing on a stubborn donkey trying to get it to move.
Law of inertia.
Newtons 1st law of motion
Results when two or more forces are acting along the same line..
Occur in the same plane in same or opposite directions.
| < z
Forces x & y are parallel in the same direction, while z is parallel but in opposite direction. Force Z is parallel but in opposite direction. Force Z must be between forces X and Y to provide stability. If force Z was at either end, instead of middle, a motion would occur
Two horses pulling a wagon
Tug a war
Unscrewing a jar
A car stuck in the snow is freed when one person puches forward at the middle of the back bumper and another pushes at the passanger door
Another term for torque is ________1_____. Torque is a force that prodused ____2_____ about an axis. The amount of torque produced depends on the ___3___ of the force and the ___4____ from the forces line of pull to the axis of rotation.
1. moment of force
Gravity is the mutual attraction between ____1____ and an ____2_____. Gravitational force is always directed to the center of the earth. Where is the center of gravity of the body is considered to be located at approximately _____3_____
3. 2nd sacral vertebrae
In some countries women transport objects by carrying them on the top of their heads. What happens to the center of gravity when an object is carried in this manner?
The COG is shifted upward
Simple machines include three basic components....
1. Axis (A)
2. Force (F)
3. Resistance (R)
2 purposes of using a pulley.
1. change direction of force
2. increase/decrease magnitude
An inclined planes exchanges ________ for _______?
2. less effort
A basic rule for simple machines is what advantage is gained in _______ is lost in _______
Describe a stable object in terms of BOS and COG.
Brick as a large BOS and
a low COG which is centered
WHat happens to the COG when a person holds a 20lb weight in their left hand?
it moves left
Tendency of a force to produce rotation around an axis.
Vector that describes speed.
Resistance to any change of its motion in either speed of direction.
Force that tends to prevent motion of one surface across another.
When people injure some part of their lower extremity, they are often provided with crutches to keep some of the body weight off the injured leg. How do the crutches affect stability?
Increase the base of support.
First class lever
FAR = Force axis Resistance
Second class lever
ARF= Axis, Resistance, Force
Third class lever
AFR= Axis, Force, Resistance
When the force arm is longer then the resistance arm, it is easier or harder to more?
easier because of the longer resistance arm
Moment arm of torque arm is the _____________ distance from the line of action to the line of __________ to the __________ of rotation. The moment arm of a muscle is greatest when he line of pull of a muscle is at _____
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