Gross Anatomy - Lecture 2 - Skeletal System

What are the parts of the skeletal system?
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What does the ribs and sternum protect?Lungs and heartWhat does the Vertebrae protect?Spinal cordWhat does the skull protect?BrainBones acts as levers toMove the bodyWhat is hematopoiesis?Blood cell formation made in bone marrowBones are reservoirs for what percentage of minerals?99% calcium 85% phosphorusWhat are the 4 bone classifications?Long Short Flat IrregularWhat are Long Bones?Typically longer than they are wide Shafts with heads on both ends Mostly compact bone - humerus - femurWhat are Short bones?Generally cubed shape Mostly spongy boneWhat are Flat Bones?Thin and flattened Usually curved Two thing layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Skull bones, ribs, sternumWhat are Irregular bones?Do not fit in other categories Irregular complicated shape - Vertebrae - Hip boneWhat are Sesamoid Bones?Bones that form within tendons Give extra leverage by enhancing angle Example: - Knee cap - Sesamoid bone in foot between phalanges and metatarsalsWhat are Hyoid Bones?Only bone that does not articulate with any other bone -Serves as moveable base for the toungeWhat are joints? What are its functions?Articulations between joints - Holds bone together - Allow for mobilityWhat are the two joint classifications?Functional StructuralWhat are the functional classifications of joints?Synarthroses - Immobile joints (skull) Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable joints (vertebrae) Diarthroses -Freely movable joints (Fingers)What are structural classifications of joints?Fibrous - Generally immovable Cartilaginous joints - Immovable - Slighly moveable Synovial Joints -Freely moveableFibrous JointBones united by fibrous tissue - Largely immovable Ligament between fibula and tibiaCartilaginous JointBones connected by cartilage - Costal cartilage to sternum - Intervertebral joints - Pubic Symphysis Normally doesn't allow for a lot of movement unless for certain instancesWhat type of joint is important during child birth?Pubic Symphysis - Cartilaginous jointWhat is the Synovial Joint?Most common Most mobile Articulate cartilage covers ends of bone - Thin layer that is smooth used to reduce frictionExplain the anatomy of a synovial joint What is the synovial membrane?Two bones are capsules by fibrous articulate capsule Bones have cartilage / ligaments that reinforce Joint cavity contains synovial fluid that is covered by 1 cell layer of synovial membrane that acts to lubricate joint and allow it to moveWhat is the difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis?Osteoarthritis - - joint wears down -bone rubs on bone -age related Rheumatoid - autoimmune - inflammation (-itis) -synovial fluid secreted by synovial I membraneOsteoarthritis xrayNo joint space Grown bone to spread area of force to compensate for lack of joint spceRheumatoid Arthritis x-rayProximal bone is getting eaten on side This is due to inflammationHands with osteoarthritis vs. rheumatoid arthritisOsteoarthritis - distal joints are crooked R.A. - proximal joints near knuckles are affected. -bent / deviated fingers due to erosion of the bone, allowing tendons to slip off.Rheumatoid Arthritis and the eyeRed eye can be caused by autoimmune disease one of the first signsWhat are synovial sacs?Two types Bursa Tendon SheatWhat is a bursa?Bursa Flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane, filled with synovial fluid. Allows for movemnetWhat is a plane joint?Carpal bones Free movementWhat is a hinge joint?Think Ulna and Humerus - Ulna - u shape -Radius - has radial circle on topWhat is a pivot joint?A rotating radial pointWhat's the saddle joint?Moves thumb finger to multiple placesWhat's a ball and socket joint?Free movement Dislocated shoulder - Bone comes out of glenoid fassaWhat forms the axial skeleton?Skull Vertebral column Bony thoraxWhat forms the appendicular skeleton?Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle Limbs (appendages) *Girdles - attach appendages to the skeletonHow is the Verterbal column separated?By intervertebral discsWhat are the 5 different groups of the vertebral columnCervical Vertebrae - 7 of them Thoracic Vertebrae - 12 Lumbar Vertebrae - 5 Sacrum - fused Coccyx - fused Remembering C - breakfast @ 7 T - Lunch at 12 pm L - dinner at 5 pm Sacrum 5 fused Coccyx - 4 fusedSurface AnatomySpinal process - site of external occipital protuberance Spinous process showsDefine the Typical Vertebral StructureLamina Spinous Process Vertebral arch Vertebral foramen (hole for spinal cord) Pedicure Superior articulate process Transverse process Compact bone surrounding spongy pone - support weight Spongy bone - bone marrowWhat are two special Cervical Spines?Atlas - C1 - articulates with/touches occipital condyles Axis - C2 - articulates with atlas (rotation) only bones that are uniqueDescribe how the head rotatesThe Atlas and axis Pivot on head of axis (dens)Describe the typical Cervical vertebraHas a transverse foramen - Vertebral artery/vein Spinous Process (bifid) has two pressesDescribe the typical Thoracic vertebraSpinous process sticks down at an angle Has transverse costal facet (for inferior ribs) Has superior costal facet for superior ribWhich vertebra and which side does the spinous process stick down? Why does it stick down?Thoracic Vertebra At the posterior sides - It articulates with the rib (ribs are twisted down) - It also protects the spinal cord coming downDescribe how ribs articulate with Thoracic Vertebra Why are the thoracic the ones to articulate with ribs?Rib comes in between two spinous process Acts as hinge so you can breathe Allow for twisting aroundDescribe the Lumbar Vertebra- It has a larger vertebral body - It has a transverse process that is very horizontal - Not much space between vertebrae - superior articulate process stick up - Limits twisting motionCompadre the three different type of vertebraeCervical Thoracic LumbarWhat's in between the vertebrae?Intervertebral Disk - Filled with an intervertebral ring -More pulpy - Anulus Fibrosus - Nucleus pulposusWhat's the purpose of the intervertebral disk?- It allows for cushioning and absorbing shock - Better in the morning as nothing is cushioned, as you put more weight, it becomes more squeezed outHow do herniated disk occur to the spinal cord?Crack in anulus fibrosus - causes nucleons pulposus to come out creating hernationWhat else supports the spinal cord?LigamentsWhat's the purpose of the spinal curvature?Curves help us keep balanceWhat are the different spinal curvature issues?Scoliosis - curved to side Kyphosis - cervical more curved (hunchback) Lordosis - more curved than it should beWhat is osteoporosis?Loss of bone mass - if it progresses to a certain point, bone collapsesWhat is kyphosis?Humpback in the thoracic areaWhat does the Thoracic Cage do?- Protects thoracic viscera (internal organs) - supports shoulder girdle - Has a role in breathingWhat composes the thoracic cage?12 thoracic vertebrae 12 ribs Costal cartilages - connects ribs to the sternum Sternum (in adulthood is all fused together)What are the parts of the sternum?Manubrium (sternal notch) - top of sternum Body Xiphoid process In adulthood it becomes calcifiedWhere are costal cartilages located?Costal cartilage connect the ribs to the sternum Only two ribs don't have costal cartilage (11/12)Which ribs are true ribs?1-7Which ribs are False Ribs? Why are they false ribs?8-12 are false ribs - Vertebra connect to the cartilage, then to the sternum. Not directly 11/12 don't have cartilage - they don't function in respiration -they do protect organsDescribe the anatomy of th ribHead Inferior/Superio Articular Facets Neck Tubercle Angle Costal Groove (Protects the VAN - Vein, Artery, Nerve) ShaftWhat does VAN mean?Vein Artery Nerve This is the way the costal groove of the rib protectHow does a rib articulate with a thoracic vertebra?How does a rib attach?Spinous process - facet - tumble Neck - > head - > facetWhy does a rib disappear in the CT scan?Looking at the axial plane, Rib is angled down and it disappears into another cross sectionWhat is the appendicular skeleton?Limbs - should girdle, arm, hand, leg, foot Pelvic GirldeDescribe the pectoral girlde and functionComposed of Clavical and Scapula Supports upper limb Only bony attachment to axial skeleton at stenoclavicular joint - everything else is held by muscleDescribe the shoulder joint anatomyClavicle Glenoid Fossa attaches to numeral head Humerus ScapulaWhat joints are in the shoulder joint?Sternoclavicular joint Acromioclavicular joint Should JointWhat takes part in shoulder joint? what type of joint?Acromonion Had of Humerus Coracoid Glenoid Fossa - Ball & Socket movementWhat helps hold the shoulder joint together?Glenohumeral joint ligaments (capsule)Describe the Shoulder Joint anatomyAcronomiion of scapula Bursa Tendon Sheath Tendon of biceps muscle Joint cavity with synovial fluid Articulate cartilage Synovial membrane HumerusDescribe the parts of the upper limbHumerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Interosseous membrane between radius / ulnaWhat makes the elbow joint flex? What type of joint is it?Ulnar-numeral joint Hinge JointWhat makes the elbow joint pivot? What type of joint is it?Radio-humeral joint Pivot JointDescribe the hand anatomyPhalanges Metacarpals CapralsWhat is the function of the pelvic girlde?Support entire weight of upper body Protect Several Organs - parts of large intestine - reproductive organs - urinary bladder Supports lower limbDescribe the 3 parts of the pelvisThree pair of fused bones Ilium Ischium (where you sit) Pubis (joined by cartilage)Describe the sacrum and coccyx anatomySacrum makes up back of pelvic girdleWhat are scroiliac joints?Joints that don't allow for much movementWhat is sacroilitis?Inflammation caused in sacroiliac joints Autoimmune disease Can show up in eyeCompare male vs female pelvisFemale General - tilted forward, adapted for childbearing. True pelvis defines the birth canal Bone thickness - less; bone lighter, thinner, smoother More rounded and pubic arch is rounder Male General - tilted less forward, adapted to support male's heavier muscle Bone Thinkness - greater, heavier, thicker. More prominent markings More acute, largerWhat does the hip joint do?It's the ball and socket joint that holds the Femur and the pelvic girdleWhat constitue the lower limb?Femur Patella Fibula TibiaWhy is the femur angled?Advantage: It gets support under your own center of gravity. It allows us to stand up longer Disdvantage: makes knee a complex jointHow does the knee stabilize?It has meniscus Lateral (towards the outside) Medial (towards the inside)The Knee has multiple ligaments. Identify themAnterior Cruciate Ligament Lateral Colateral Ligament Medial Colateral Ligament Lateral Meniscus Medial MeniscusWhat connects the Fibula and the Tibia?Fibrous JointDescribe the foot anatomyPhalanges Metatarsals Tarsals Calcaneous - Heel pointWhat does a fracture look like?