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BJU World History Chapter 8
Flashcards for chapter 8 of Bob Jones University's 10th grade history book.
Terms in this set (63)
A word simply meaning "universal" or "encompassing all."
Under this Bishop of Rome, the prestige of the office was further enhanced.
"Father-Protector." This title has been applied to other bishops in both the East and the West.
This theory holds that Christ made Peter the first pope and gave him supreme authority over the church on earth.
Roman Sacramental System
An outgrowth of the mixture of human tradition and Bible doctrine.
1. Baptism washes away original sin.
2. Confirmation brings one into full fellowship with the church and brings him the Holy Spirit.
3. Through penance a church member earns forgiveness for sin committed after baptism. Penance includes, contrition, confession, satisfaction, and absolution.
4. The Holy Eucharist is a sacrifice in which the priest sacrifices Christ anew.
5. Matrimony unites a man and a woman as husband and wife.
6. Holy Orders sets an individual apart for the service of the church by ordaining him into the priesthood.
7. Extreme Unction gives an anointing or blessing to a seriously ill or dying person. Grants absolution from any remaining sin.
During this service, the priest claims to perform transubstantiation.
The supposed transformation of bread and wine into the actual body and blood of Christ.
Looked upon as the only servants of the church--its elite "warriors."
These men conducted religious services, administered the sacraments to the laity, and supervised the business and property of the church.
This group renounced the things of this world. They lived in monastic communities under strict regulations.
Strictly regulated the lives of monks.
English monk who took the gospel to Ireland.
Known as the "Apostle of the Germans."
Perhaps the best representative of the early medieval popes. "The Great."
A place of temporary punishment where souls bound for heaven must go after death to atone for their "minor" unconfessed sins or for sins for which they have not done sufficient penance.
The most powerful of the Germanic peoples. They established many independent kingdoms in Gaul (modern-day France).
In 481 he became the head of a Frankish tribe in northern Gaul. He conquered other Frankish tribes, uniting them into one kingdom. "King of the Franks."
The royal line of family from Clovis. Plagued by quarrels.
They reigned, but they did not rule.
Mayor of the Palace
The real power behind the throne was assumed by this principal palace official, the major domo.
He defeated all the rival mayors and reunited almost all of the Frankish territories under one rule.
Son of Pepin II. "The Hammer." The best remembered of all the mayors of the palace.
Charles Martel won his fame by stopping the advance of the Muslims into Europe. He defeated them at the Battle of Tours in western France in this year.
Pepin the Short
Like his father Charles Martel, he served as mayor of the palace. Anointed king in 751 by the pope.
Named after its most illustrious member, Charlemagne--now ruled the Franks.
They were a Germanic people who through conquest had moved into northern Italy.
Donation of Pepin
These lands eventually became the Papal States.
Charles had earned him this title, "Charles the Great" by being one of the outstanding figures of the Middle Ages.
The king's envoys (messengers).
The pope placed a crown on Charlemagne's head and proclaimed him Roman emperor on Christmas Day in this year.
He took charge of the palace school and trained the king's children as well as the children of other noble families.
This clean and simple writing style became the model for much of our lowercase writing today.
Treaty of Verdun (843)
The sons of Louis the Pious met at the city of Verdun in this year and agreed to split the empire into three separate kingdoms.
Charles the Bald
He received West Frankland. One of the sons of Louis the Pious.
Louis the German
He received East Frankland. One of the sons of Louis the Pious.
Retained the title of emperor and ruled the land between his brothers kingdoms. The eldest brother of the sons of Louis the Pious.
A group of Asiatic nomads who later became known as the Hungarians.
These Germanic tribes swooped down from the north out of the lands known as Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.
The form of government prevalent in western Europe from the ninth to thirteenth centuries. Local rulers offered the people protection in return for their services.
Land grants nobles received for aiding the king in military services.
The recipient of a fief became the king's servant. He did not own the land, but held it as payment for service rendered to the king.
The process of a vassal parceling out pieces of his fief in turn for services, becoming a lord and having vassals of his own.
The ceremony by which a man became a vassal and thus eligible for a fief.
Symbolic act of a lord handing the vassal a small stick, lance, or clod of earth giving the right of use of a fief.
Financial payments that vassals supplied to their lord on special occasions such as when his lord's eldest son became a knight or when the lord's eldest daughter was married.
The center of life for the nobility. It was not only the lord's home, but also the local jail, the treasury, the armory, the court, and the seat of government.
Dubbed at age twenty-one. They were to defend the Church, assail infidelity, venerate the priesthood, protect the poor from injuries, pacify the province, pour out their blood for their brothers, and if need be lay down their lives.
At age seven, a boy's initiation formally began. He was placed in the care of a knight (often an uncle) for special training to develop mind and body for the next several years.
The personal servant of a knight. His training became more intense and his responsibilities greater.
A strict code of behavior lived by the knight.
Peace of God
By this, the church forbade the pillage of her property and extended protection to all noncombatants of society.
Truce of God
This sought to limit fighting on specified weekdays by forbidding combat from Wednesday evening to Monday morning.
A mock war for knights including two types of contests, the joust and the melee.
The home for the vast majority of people living in western Europe during the Middle Ages.
The land reserved for the lord.
Villagers planted the crops on only half of the cultivated land, leaving the other half to lie fallow for a year to recover in fertility.
In the spring the peasants planted one field with barley, oats, or beans; in the fall they planted a second field with rye or wheat. In the meantime the third field was left fallow.
These were the more privileged peasants who served as manorial officials or provided skilled labors.
The majority of those living on a manor.
The serfs devoted two or three days a week to working for their lord.
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