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Study guide for AP Euro

Desiderus Erasmus

Most famous intellectual writer of his time period: In praise of folly.

Thomas More

Most of his ife attached to the royal court; died because of religious beliefs.

Jacques lefeure d'etables

Wrote 5 interpretations of the book of psalms.

Francesco ximeres de cismeros

leading cardinal in the catholic curch

Northern Renaissance Artsits

Jon Van Eyck, Peter Brueghel, Albrecht Purer, Hans Holbein

What is the difference between Northern Humanism and Italian Humanism?

Northern: More focused on christain beliefs
Italian: More focused on the people/ pupils becoming doctors, idealogists ,etc.

Spain Leaders

Fernand, Isabella

Spain Leaders: Did what?

Fernand: United spain, Reconquista. *Take Back Spain*

Diet of Worms

1521; Martin Luther, Frederick Protets marin Luther. Diet of worms directly related to Edict of Worms.

Lutheran Movement *What Is Lutherism*

Salvation through faith alone; only one religious authority: The bible

2 forms of eucharist

Transubstantiation: Literal consumption of christ
Consubstantation: Symbolic of Christ

League of Schmalkadin

1531; association of princes in Northern part of Europe.

John Calvin

Pre destination

Groups created from Calvinism

Presbyterian, Quakers Etc.

Peace of Augsburg

Lutherism and Catholicism allowed

Henry VIII

in defence of the seven sacramets
'defender of the faith' was the nickname

Thomas Moore

wrote Utopia a perfect england, pointing out all the flaws

Thomas Cramner

42 articles on religion

Act of Supremacy

1534, King of england is now head of church

Mary I

Bloody Mary

Elizabeth I

Considered greatest queen of england; encourages Renaissance


Critics of the church, Corruption of the church
Decline of prestige papacy
Renaissance Humanism
Economic Restrictions

Religious Wars

Treaty of Cateau; Hapsburg vs. Valois
HRE is internaly weak

Peace of Augsburg

1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler

Phillip II

King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.

El Escorial

Center of Government

French Civil Wars

after Henry II died there was a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown. Many nobles who had converted to Calvinism wanted to gain independence from the crown, resulting in feudal disorder. At least nine wars occured in the late 1500s as a result.

Edict of Nantes

1598; Grants religious toleration to hugonauts

30 Years War

(1618-1648) This Bourbon vs. Habsburg War resulted from a conflict between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League in the Holy Roman Empire

4 Phases of the 30 Years War


Cardinal Richelieu

Tells france to keep HRE divided

Traty o West Phalia

1648 Protestants victorious


an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests


an economic system based on private ownership of capital

Causes for Exploraton

Desire for new route to asia

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Thomas Hobbes

wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society

Louis XIII

king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)

Louis XIV

king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)

Jean Baptiste Colbert

An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.


Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests

Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649

Petition of rights

List of demands from Parliament

English Civil War

Cavaliers VS. Roundheads


Rule Without King

James II

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange

Hanoverian Kings



German state which led the unification movement and was the most powerful portion of the newly-created Germany.

Scientific Revolution

an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method

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