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(1762-1796) An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs., Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)., An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port., (1729-1796) Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire, its wealth & education/benefits for people; inspired by French Enlightenment; wife of Peter III; Emelian Pugachev ruled with her after Peter's "death"., later called Empress of All the Russians; birth name Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst; grew up in Baltic port of Stettin; learned from Babette Cardel- her French governess; grew very sick; weeks of lying on her side deformed her physique and she assumed the shape of a Z; father a strict Lutheran; summoned to Russia and married the future Peter III; had to convert to Orthodox fate, changed name ;when Empress Elizabeth died, Peter III acceded to the throne; had her husband murdered and salt tax lowered; established a legislative commission to review laws of Russia; wrote the Instruction (1767) by which elected commissioners were to operate; borrowed her theory of law from French Montequieu and her theory of law from Italian Beccaria; advocated abolition of capital punishment, torture, serf auctions, break up of serf families by sale, but few reforms were put to practice; restructured local government; Russia divided into 50 provincial districts, each with population between 300,000-400,000; each district governed by central official + elected local noblemen; Charter of the Nobility; educational reforms in order to train nobility for government service; University of Moscow founded in 1755, but faculty dominated by European emigrants; est. provincial elementary schools to train the children of local nobility; to staff schools she created teachers' colleges so that the state would have its own educators; except in Saint Petersburg and Moscow few females attended school; did little to enhance lives most people; by grants of state land she gave away 800,000 state peasants who then became serfs; millions of Poles became serfs after partition of Poland; Pugachev's Revolt during her reign