Enlightenment

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Enlightenment
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions., "natural laws". celebrate the power of human reason, argued that rational thought could create progress and knowledge. Control over own life and society., 18th century movement which emphasized modern practical achievements of knowledge, religious toleration and liberty., 18th and 19th century. Also age of reason. Characterised by faith in the ability of humans reason to solve society's problems
Deism
A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.
Two treatises of Civil Government by John Locke
the idea that a goverment is based on an agreement between the people and the ruler., writings of John Locke; says that all men posses certain natural rights, derived from the fact that they reasonable creatures., (1690) - Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property., Book by John Locke s that refutes the divine rights of kings and the absolutist theory of government
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke, 1690, human mind has no innate ideas, what people know is not the world but the result of the interactions of the mind with the world., An essay by John Locke. Asserted that humans are born with a "tabula rasa" or a blank slate. Everything humans know comes from experience, not initial nature., This was Locke's deepest philosophical work. Published in 1690, it faced the great problem of the day - i.e. what is the source of knowledge? Locke said that it derived from experience (echoing Bacon). He denied Descartes notion of innate ideas. Said that the mind at birth was like a TABULA RASA or blank slate. One's experiences formed one's knowledge bank and molded reactions to the environment. Locke's environmentalist philosophy would be fundamental to liberal and reforming thought in later years. CONSIDER THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS!
Tabula Rasa
Blank Slate
Philosophes
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas., A group of French "radicals" who focused on human reason and making critical changes in society
Voltaire
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church., "Father of the Enlightenment", (1694-1778) An upper middle class Frenchman who was inspired by Bayle. He wrote Letters concerning the English Nation which attacked Catholic bigotry in France by highlighting the advantages of England. He gained extreme fame by popularizing Newton's scientific discoveries in his book "Elements of the Philosophy of Newton.", (1694-1778) French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Ecracsez l'infame
Crush the infamous thing. This is a saying by Voltaire, saying that we should act against organized religion.
Spirit of Laws by Baron de Montesquieu
Written by Montesique talking about the seperation of powers and how government should be divided up into separate branches of goverment., called for separation of powers in government into three branches Goal: prevent tyranny and promote liberty. Principle of checks and balances would ensure that no single branch of gov't became too powerful as the other two branches couldn't.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
"Social Contract" he explained an ideal society where each community member would vote on issues and majority would become one law., A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy, 1712-1778. Major philosopher, literary figure, and composer of the Enlightenment era whose political philosophy influenced the French Revolution, development of liberal and socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. Published "The Social Contract" in 1762, one of the most influential works on political philosophy in the Western tradition., (1712-1778) theorized that children are innately good, know right from wrong, & develop positively unless interfered with by society.
Social contract 1762
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others. (Rosseau)
General Will
According to Rousseau the general will is sacred and absolute, reacting the common interests of the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of ultimate power., A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
Noble Savage
The idea that primitive human beings are naturally good and that whatever evil they develop is the product of the corrupting action of civilization., Expresses the concept of an idealized, outsider, or "other." It achieved prominence as an oxymoronic rhetorical device after 1850., The notion, often associated with Rousseau, that non-Western or "primitive" people are actually happier and more virtuous than Westerners. Based on the idea that humans are free and equal in "a state of nature" but that social institutions deprive them of that freedom and equality.
The Encyclopedia by Denis Diderot
This work, edited by Diderot and published between 1751-72, contained 71,818 articles, some by the leading philosophes -- It was a compilation of the learning of the Enlightenment and helped spread these ideas throughout Europe., The Encyclopedia threatened the governing social classes of France (aristocracy) because it took for granted the justice of religious tolerance, freedom of thought, and the value of science and industry. It asserted the doctrine that the main concern of the nation's government ought to be the nation's common people., made by Diderot and was made to bring together all the most current and enlightened thinking about science, technology, art, government, and more. Published in 1751
Marquis de Beccaria
on crimes and punishment. sought to humanize criminal law based on enlightenment concepts of reason and equality before the law., sought to humanize criminal law based on Enlightenment concepts of reason & equality before the law; punishment for a crime should be based rationally on the damage done to society; opposed the death penalty for the most part., on crimes and punishment, sought to hummanize criminal law based on enlightenement concepts of reason and equality before the law, opposed tourture and the death penalty, his views influenced the enlightened despots
Francois Quesnay
(1694-1774) French economist. Quesnay was the undisputed leader of the Physiocrats, the first systematic school of economic thought. Among its tenets were the economic and moral righteousness of laissez-faire policies and the notion that land was the ultimate source of all wealth., One of the leaders of the physiocrats movement during the 18th century. He disagreed with the mercantilist system; instead, he believed land was the only source of wealth, and wealth could only be increased through agriculture since all other economic activities were unproductive.
Physiocrats
A group of economists who urged the French government to deregulate the grain trade and make the tax system more equitable to encourage agricultural productivity. Claimed guilds should be abolished in order to establish a free market and strongly influenced Adam Smith., This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land., Along with the philosophes, they believed in natural rights of freedom of press and religion.
Wealth of a Nation by Adam Smith
It earned Smith an enormous reputation and would become one of the most influential works on economics ever published. He is now widely cited as the father of modern economics and capitalism for writing this book., depends on people, technology, capital shock, governance., The total amount of economically relevant private and public assets including physical (or natural), financial, human, and "social" capital.
Salon Movement
women played major role-many of brightest minds of Enlightenment assembled to discuss major issues-took part in discussions., many of the brightest minds of the Enlightenment assembled in salons to discuss the major issues of the day (mostly organized by women, i.e. Madame de Geoffren and Louise de Warens)., Women played major role-many of brightest minds of Enlightenment assembled to discuss major issues-took part in discussions. Philosophes favored increased rights and education for women.
Madame de Geoffrin
(1699-1777) A wealthy middle-class widow who hosted a famous Parisian salon. She created the salon to educate herself and to participate directly in the movement for reform. Brought together the most exciting thinkers and artists of the time and corresponded with influential people across Europe.
Madame de Stael
woman who was influenced by germany, became a leader of romanticism in France., hosted intellectual salons and was a writer during the Romantic period. Was an early advocate for women's rights and was banished from France by Napoleon (daughter of Jacque Necker)., Wrote Germany; influencing literary tastes in Europe at the turn of the 19th century.
Mary Wollstonecraft
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women.", English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women., An English writer who wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women", arguing that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be so because of lack of education.
Baron Paul d'Holbach
wrote "System of Nature", which said humans are only machines and have no free will- created a rift between atheist and deist thinkers within the enlightened group., German philosophe who wrote System of Nature in which he claimed humans were merely machines and that the idea of G-d was foolish., (1723-1789), argued that human beings were machines completely determined by outside forces, deeply hostile toward religion
David Hume
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)., (1711-1716) Scottish philosopher. Considered a pioneering social scientist. In his work "Treatise on Human Nature", he argued that observation and reflection, grounded in systematized common sense made conceivable a "science of man"., (1711-1776), argued that the human mind is nothing but a bundle of impressions which originate in sense experiences, reason cannot tell us anything that cannot be verified by sense experiences, undermined the Enlightenment's faith in reason.
Jean de Condorcet
Progress of the Human Mind-utopian ideas also undermined legitimacy of Enlightenment ideas-identified 9 stages of human progress and predicted 10th stage would bring perfection., Well known thinker who supported the feminist movement. He wrote the Progress of the human mind. Had utopian ideas also undermined legitimacy of Enlightenment ideas-identified 9 stages of human progress and predicted 10th stage would bring perfection
Immanuel Kant
Professor in East Prussia, argued that if serious thinkers were granted freedom to exercise their reason in print, enlightenment would surely follow. He said that Frederick the Great was an enlightened monarch because he allowed this., (1724-1804) Deontological Ethics; non-consequentialist. 1. happiness is not an intrinsic good, it can be evil. 2. the only intrinsic good is good will (using reason to determine your duty and doing it regardless of consequences. 3. an action is right only if it is done from duty, not self-interest or inclination. 4. what is our duty?, (1724-1804) a German Enlightenment philosopher; he wrote the Critique of Pure Reason, believed in uniting reason with experience, that the mind is a filter, that we experience things simply through our senses, and that reason is the source of morality; he was particularly prolific in the philosophy of ethics and metaphysics.
Classical Liberalism
A term given to the philosophy of John Locke and other 17th and 18th century advocates of the protection of individual rights and liberties by limiting government power.
German Pietism
went against enlightenment, emphasis on christian life., The Thirst for more emotional experience in religion, the thought that salvation is open to all, warm celebration., argued need for spiritual conversion and religious experience.
Methodism
A religion founded by John Wesley. Insisted strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Emphasized an intense personal salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work.
John Wesley
A Georgia missionary doing work with Indians and debtors (conversions). He returns to England later and founds the Methodist Church., Anglican minister; created religious movement, Methodism; led to become missionary to the English people; apealed especialy to lower class; his Methodism gave lower and middle classes in English society a sense of purpose and comunity., Within C of E, while a student at Oxford JW joined group of like-minded men for prayer and meditation. Concerned that in increasingly urbanized society conditions of masses deteriorating and yet churches empty because not reaching people in their misery. Therefore, emphasized good works and teaching of poor - getting out to people rather than waiting for them to come into what were mostly empty churches. Itinerant preaching - large crowds. Traveled 1/4 million miles in 50 years in Britain. He and George Whitfield helped start Great Awakening in America in 1740s. Democratizing effect - stressed individual worth and spiritual consciousness. Had 1/2 million followers at end of life(1791) - in Methodist societies within C of E. Later split and formed own churches though JW never intended to form separate church - just trying to reach more people within Anglican Church. Tended to appeal to popular culture rather than elite and not as much emphasis on doctrine but rather on personal relationship with Jesus for every believer.
Jansenism
Movement within the seventeenth-century Catholic Church. It opposed the Jesuits and advocated that humans could only achieve salvation through divine grace, not through good works., A sect of Catholicism originating with Cornelius Jansen that emphasized the heavy weight of original sin and accepted the doctrine of predestination; it was outlawed as heresy by the pope., A branch of Catholicism which resembled Protestantism. Emphasized need for God's grace in achieving salvation and the importance of original sin. Louis XIV took special actions to restrict the rights of this group and force them underground.
Spare the rod and spoil the child
stance on child punishment in 18th century society., punishing a child will make them flourish, if you don't, they will expect to be treated well all the time., children need to be physically punished to learn a lesson or they will become brats
Edward Jenner
Discovered the small pox vacine., In 1796 the British doctor created the smallpox vaccine, from the cowpox virus. (The vaccine helped lay the foundation for science of immunology in the 19th century.), ... performed the first smallpox vaccination in 1796 - the conquer of smallpox was the greatest medical triumph of the 18th century
Pietism
17th and 18th-century German movement in the Lutheran Church stressing personal piety and devotion., ..., This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs.
Rococo
A popular style in Europe in the eighteenth century, known for its soft pastels, ornate interiors, sentimental portraits, and starry-eyed lovers protected by hovering cupids., A feminizing of the Baroque, it's not as strong or masculine., A Continuation of the french ideas of the Baroque period with a focus on the pleasures of life for the aristocracy, very feminine, soft, sensual., A style of architecture and the decorative arts characterized by intricate ornamentation that was popular throughout Europe in the early 18th century. Emphasized curves and moved away from geometric patterns.
Neoclassicism
A style of art and architecture that emerged in the later 18th century. Part of a general revival of interest in classical cultures, Neoclassicism was characterized by the utilization of themes and styles from ancient Greece and Rome.
Jacques-Louis David
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793)., A highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity towards a classical austerity and severity.
Classical style music
The neo-classical ideas in the visual arts influenced music as well with the ideals of balance, symmetry and restraint., In music refers to the works and style of Mozart and Haydn, particularly.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
6 year old prodigy. Wrote more than 600 pieces of music. Gained instant celebrity. Died at 35. Music helped define a new style of composition
Franz Joseph Haydn
(1732-1809) Classical composer who spent most of his life as musical director for wealthy Esterhazy brothers; visits to England introduced him to world of public concerts rather than princely patrons;wrote The Creation and The Seasons., A composer from Vienna, Austria who developed new musical forms such as the sonata and the symphony during the classical period., An Austrian composer and director of the Esterhazy's. Known as the "Father of the Symphony." An important composer of the string quartet. Thought very highly of Mozart.
Ludwig van Beethoven
German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)., German composer who combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound., This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music., German composer known for his classical symphonies; considered one of the greatest composers who continued to compose after he became deaf
Symphony
An elaborate musical composition for full orchestra, typically in four movements, at least one of which is traditionally in sonata form.
Enlightened Despotism
philosophes inspired and supported reforms of Enlightened despots-believed absolute rulers should promote good of people-religious toleration, streamlined legal codes, increased access to education, reduction or elimination of torture and death penalty
Frederick the Great
(1712-1786), King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress., (1712-1786) Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler., Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy., "First servant of state" Reduced the use of torture and allowed free press.Reorganized government's civil service and simplified laws. Tolerate religious differences.
War of Austrian Succession
(1740-48)Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him., This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state., (1740-1748); Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI died without heir; most rulers recognized his daughter Maria Theresa because of Charles's Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 had given a woman the right to inherit the Habsburg crown lands; Frederick II of Prussia invaded the Austrian province of Silesia and France joined Prussia; great Britain allied with Austria to prevent France from taking the Austrian Netherlands; French and British colonies fought overseas in North American; Maria Theresa conceded Silesia to Prussia to split the Prussians off from France; Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748 recognized Maria Theresa as the heiress to Austrian lands and her husband Francis I became the Holy Roman Emperor; the peace failed to resolve colonial conflicts between Britain and France.
Silesia
Austrian province in eastern Germany that is later seized by Frederick II of Prussia in December of 1740, provoking the War of the Austrian Succession.
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763) Britain + Prussia allied in this war; Prussian expansion alarmed Russia + France, Frederick II feared that he would be squeezed from both east + west; Frederick asked the British for help, British had interests in protecting Hanover; this alliance drove France, Russia, Austria, Saxony to form an alliance; Frederick attacked Saxony + Austria in 1756, which caused the Russians to intercede with a massive army; established the status of Prussia as a major power and a counterbalance to Austria in central Europe; initiated a long period of peace in eastern Europe; Prussia + Austria financially exhausted and needed a breathing spell to initiate administrative +economic improvements; made Britain's debt rise to 130 million pounds
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
Major reversal of diplomatic alliances. Great Britain reversed its alliance with Austria and forged a relationship with Prussia, causing France to join with Austria and Russia to check Prussian power., The time of changing alliances between the war of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, France allied with Austria and Russia, while Prussia is allied with Great Britain
Treaty of Paris
1763. Prussia gets Silesia. Britain gains ALL of France's North American COLONIES.
First Servant of the state
Frederick the Great considered himself this, and many of his reforms were for the improvement of society, but most were intended to increase the power of the state.
Catherine the Great
(1762-1796) An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs., Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)., An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port., (1729-1796) Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire, its wealth & education/benefits for people; inspired by French Enlightenment; wife of Peter III; Emelian Pugachev ruled with her after Peter's "death"., later called Empress of All the Russians; birth name Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst; grew up in Baltic port of Stettin; learned from Babette Cardel- her French governess; grew very sick; weeks of lying on her side deformed her physique and she assumed the shape of a Z; father a strict Lutheran; summoned to Russia and married the future Peter III; had to convert to Orthodox fate, changed name ;when Empress Elizabeth died, Peter III acceded to the throne; had her husband murdered and salt tax lowered; established a legislative commission to review laws of Russia; wrote the Instruction (1767) by which elected commissioners were to operate; borrowed her theory of law from French Montequieu and her theory of law from Italian Beccaria; advocated abolition of capital punishment, torture, serf auctions, break up of serf families by sale, but few reforms were put to practice; restructured local government; Russia divided into 50 provincial districts, each with population between 300,000-400,000; each district governed by central official + elected local noblemen; Charter of the Nobility; educational reforms in order to train nobility for government service; University of Moscow founded in 1755, but faculty dominated by European emigrants; est. provincial elementary schools to train the children of local nobility; to staff schools she created teachers' colleges so that the state would have its own educators; except in Saint Petersburg and Moscow few females attended school; did little to enhance lives most people; by grants of state land she gave away 800,000 state peasants who then became serfs; millions of Poles became serfs after partition of Poland; Pugachev's Revolt during her reign
Pugachev Rebellion
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed., During 1770's in reign of Catherine the Great; led by cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar; eventually crushed; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter., A Cossack chieftain who claimed to be the legitimate tsar, launched a rebellion against tsarist authority and promised to abolish serfdom, taxation and military conscription.
Polish Partitions
Under Catherine the Great, Prussia gained Polish territory through this annexation agreement between Prussia and Austria., three territorial divisions of Poland, perpetrated by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, by which Poland's size was progressively reduced until, after the final partition, the state of Poland ceased to exist.
Liberum Veto
voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs., (r. 1740-1780) maintained her throne by giving Hungary Magyars prominence, reorganized army, promoted commerce and agriculture., (1740-1780) Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary. Lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austrian territories., Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for austrian society
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
(1438) King Charles VII of France established French control over the papacy by allowing the King to appoint his own French bishops and to retain ecclesiastical revenues. This caused conflict between the popes and French kings that was unresolved until the Concordat of Bologna in 1516., Formal declaration of separation of church. No taxes for upper class in return for not having to meet the EG. Taxes come from poor people now., This was issued by King Charles VIII of France, and it recognized the right of the French church to elect its own clergy without papal interference, prohibited the payment of annates to Rome, and limited the right of appeals from French courts to the Curia in Rome
Joseph II
(r. 1780-1790) coregent with his mother (Maria Theresa) from 1765 until her death-controlled Catholic church closely; granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews; abolished serfdom; peasant labor to be converted into cash paymentscountry in turmoil at death., This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom., (Ruled 1780-1790) Son of Maria Theresa; Holy Roman Emperor of Austria. Ordered a new unified code of laws; applauded suppression of the Jesuits; required Austrian bishops to swear submission to him;launched ambitious educational reforms; pushed for religious toleration; tried to remove the burdens of serfdom in his lands; and encourage agricultural innovation. (Most of his reforms fell apart after his death; resistant nobles pushed his brother to revoke them.) (Example of an enlightened despot.)