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Modern World History Chapter 7,8, and 9 Review

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Old Regime
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
The Three Estates
1st estate= clergy, 2nd estate= nobility, 3rd estate= middle, working, lower classes
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Legislative Assembly
A French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
National Assembly
3rd estate declaration that it was the only true govt. in france
National Convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
Liberte, egalite, et fraternite
slogan from the Reveolution
Guillotine
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Bastille
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
The Great Fear
After an angry mob of French citizens stormed and destroyed the Bastille, a prison, rebellion spread from Paris into the countryside. From one village to the next, wild rumors circulated that the nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants. A wave of senseless panic called the Great Fear rolled through France.
Reign of Terror
(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty"
The Directory
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens. Protected basic rights and limited king's power.
Napoleonic Code
A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Concordat
Agreement between Pope and Napoleon: Napoleon recognized Catholocism as the religion of the majority of France, Pope does not ask for any land back seized during the Revolution
Scorched earth policy
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land
Retreat from Moscow
1812, for over a century this remained the last word in military horror/disaster. Freezing conditions, starving troops, vehicles bogged down, equipment abandoned, discipline broke down. Grand Armee composed of different nationalities - different languages led to confusion. 611,000 troops hand entered Russia with Napoleon. Of these 400,000 died and 100,000 were taken prisoner. Grand Armee therefore disintegrated in retreat from Moscow. Nap raced home to Paris in 13 days to try to salvage situation and raise a new army.
Peninsular War
A conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Blockade
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
Battle of Waterloo
1815, This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
Hundred Days
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Louis XVI
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Marie-Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Bourgeoisie
French middle class. Processors of production.
Jean-Paul Marat
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
Georges-Jacques Danton
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
Sans Culottes
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
Jacobins (Group)
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Napoleon Bonaparte
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
Duke of Wellington
British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Prince Metternich
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna
Louis XVIII
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Realism
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Impressionism
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
Romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Conservative
A person whose pol. views favor more local, limited govt, less govt regulations, conformity to social norms &values; rough on criminals
liberal
A person whose views favor more govt involvemnt in business, social welfare, minority rights, &increased govt spending
radical
(used of opinions and actions) far beyond the norm
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
Penninsulares
Pure Spanish people who were appointed by the king to have political authority over everyone in their colonies
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
Mulattoes
People of African and European descent
Assembly Line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
Laissez-faire
Hands off. No government intervention in business.
The Wealth of Nations (Book)
A book published by Adam Smith in 1776. Insisted that individual self-interest, even greed, was compatible with society's best interests. Claimed an "invisible hand" of supply and demand naturally brought both interests in line.
Communism
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Proletariat
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Communist Manifesto
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
Unions
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
Factors of Production
Land, labor, and capital; the three groups of resources that are used to make all goods and services
Tenements
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Factory system
A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building