59 terms

apush ch 9&10


Terms in this set (...)

articles of confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
western land claims
the state cessions are those areas of the US that the seperate states ceded to the federal government in the late 18th and early 19th century
land ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
northwest ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
requisition system
a formal demand made by one nation upon another for the surrender or extradition of a fugitive from justice
shays rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
alexander hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
philadelphia convention
1787--12 colonies send delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation; Delegates soon agree the United States needs a new Constitution
benjamin franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
james madison
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
virginia plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
fundamental law
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
bill of rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
society of the cincinnati
A society established by former officers of the Revolutionary war as a sort of aristocracy in which traditionalism and social status was important. Thomas Jefferson and other civilians thought that this movement threatened the newly formed republic and feared it could turn into an aristocracy so they worked to disband it. This was showed that nothing would stand in the way of a democratic government. This was crucial as this is the point when most revolutions fail, but the determination from Jefferson ceased this early threat.
massachusetts state constitution
When it was adopted in 1780, the Massachusetts constitution could be changed only if another specially called constitutional campaign was called and then submitted the final draft to the people for ratification. This procedure was later imitated in the ratification of the federal Constitution.
abigail adams
John Adam's wife, she appealed to her husband to protect the rights of women
john jay
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
three fifths compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
electoral college
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
great compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
new jersey plan
New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
the federalist
Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
bill of rights 1791
are the constitutional amendments made to US constitution that deal and legitimate the issue to the human rights
judiciary act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
funding at par
it meant that the federal government would pay off its debts at face value with interest
Taxes on imports or exports
excessive tax
such taxes may be levied during a time of national emergency such as in wartime and are designed to increase national revenue
bank of the US 1791
created to handle the financial requirements of the central government of the newly formed US
jefferson position
secretary of state hated any kind of taxation , deals with foreign policy
federalist party
1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans.
whiskey rebellion 1794
Response to tax on whiskey and George Washington lead small army (13000 men) to suppress them
french revolution 1789
overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of the aristocratic privleges and ended with napoleans overthrow of the directory and siezure of power in 1799
democratic republican party
political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states.
neutrality proclamation 1793
issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy, proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict
citizen edmond ganet
(1763-1834) French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution.
miami confederacy
An alliance of eight Indian nations who terrorized Americans and were given firearms by the British
general mad anthony wayne
leader of army that defeated the miamis that were aided by British on canadian border in the battle of fallen timbers
treaty of greenville 1795
Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation and $10,000.
jays treaty 1794 with britain
between US and Great Britain that is credited with averting war solved many issues left over from the American Revolution and the treaty of Paris of 1783
pickneys treaty 1795 with spain
established intentions of friendship between the US and spain
washingtons two term tradition
a president could serve 2 terms or 8 years
washingtons farewell address 1797
was written near the end of his second term as president and before his retirement to say his ending of presidency
john marshall
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
xyz affair 1797
Incident that precipitated an undeclared war with France when thre French officials (identified as X, Y, and Z) demanded that American emissaries pay a bribe before negotiating disputes between the two countries.
convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
alien laws
laws which placed a barrier on immigration and raised residency requirements to apply for citizenship
sedition act
law making it a crime to criticize or say anything false about the government, especially the President and Congress
virginia and kentucky resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
compact theory
claiming that the formation of the nation was through a compact by all of the states individually and that the national government is consequently a creation of the states
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
hamiltonian federalists
strongly nationalistic; broad interpretation of the US Constitution,Wanted government controlled by the rich, well-born, and able, Feared undiluted democracy (the ignorant could be manipulated)
jeffersonian democratic republicans
they believed that the geatest threat to liberty was posed by a tyrannical central government and that power in the hands of the common people was preffered
loose interpretation
A way of INTERPRETING the Constitution that allows the Federal Gov't to take actions THAT the Constitution doesn't forbid it from taking.
hamilton position
Constitution was a broad, "elastic" document, open for interpretation
strict interpretation
A way of INTERPRETING the Constitution that allows the Federal Gov't to ONLY do those things SPECIFICALLY mentioned in the Constitution