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Supreme Court and Amendments
Terms in this set (62)
Marbury v. Madison
Established the Supreme Court's role as the arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws; judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland
Ruled states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the U.S.; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Upholds the sanctity of the contract clause of the Constitution
Gibbons v. Ogden
Affirmed congressional power over interstate commerce
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Established a "trust relationship" with the tribes directly under federal authority
Worcester v. Georgia
Established tribal autonomy within their boundaries, i.e. the tribes were "distinct political communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive."
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
Ruled the interests of the community are more important than the interests of business; the supremacy of society's interest over private interest
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Declared labor unions were lawful organizations and strikes were lawful weapons
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
Ruled states did not have to enforce the return of fugitive slaves
Scott v. Stanford
Ruled Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in court, Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory (based on 5th amendment right of a person to be secure from seizure of property), thus voiding the Missouri Compromise of 1820
Munn v. Illinois
Upheld Granger laws that regulated railroads
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
Ruled that neither the 13th or 14th amendments could prevent "private" discrimination or racism by individuals or businesses; declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
Declared state-passed Granger laws that regulated interstate commerce unconstitutional
U.S. v. E.C. Knight co.
Ruled the Sherman Antitrust Act did not apply to manufacturing operations, only commerce. Undermined the authority of the federal government to act against monopolies
Plessy v. Ferguson
Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal"
Confirmed the right of the federal government to place tariffs on goods entering the U.S. from U.S. territories on the grounds that "the Constitution does not follow the flag"
Northern Securities Co. v. U.S.
Re-established the authority of the federal government to fight monopolies under the Sherman Antitrust Act
Lochner v. New York
Declared unconstitutional a NY Act limiting the working hours of bakers due to a denial of the 14th Amendment rights
Muller v. Oregon
First case to use the "Brandeis brief"; recognised a 10-hour work day for women laundry workers on the grounds of health and community concerns
Schenck v. US
Upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 (people who interfered with the war effort were subject to imprisonment) AND ruled 1st Amendment right to freedom of speech was not absolute; free speech could be limited if its exercise presented a "clear and present danger"
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Declared unconstitutional a minimum wage law for women on the grounds that it denied women freedom of contract.
Schechter v. U.S.
"the sick chicken case"; Declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional on three grounds: the act delegated legislative power to the executive, there was a lack of constitutional authority for such legislation, and it sought to regulate businesses that were wholly intrastate in character
Korematsu v. U.S.
Upheld the constitutionality of detention camps for Japanese-Americans during WWII
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
declared "separate but equal" unconstitutional
Engel v. Vitale
Ruled that government composed prayers in public schools were unconstitutional
Baker v. Carr
Required state legislatures to apportion electoral districts so all citizens' votes would have equal weight
Gideon v. Wainwright
Extends to the defendant the right of counsel in all state and federal criminal trials regardless of their ability to pay.
Escobedo v. Illinois
Ruled that a defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police.
Griswold v. Connecticut
ruled the Constitution protected a right to privacy; They found that the Connecticut state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives violated the "right to marital privacy"
Miranda v. Arizona
Ruled those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent
Roe v. Wade
legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy; based on 4th amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons
U.S. v. Richard Nixon
Rejected Richard Nixon's claim to an absolutely unqualified privilege against any judicial process
Bakke v. Regents of the University of California
The court upheld affirmative action, but not the use of racial quotas; affirmative action was criticized as "reverse discrimination"; the court generally upheld affirmative action, but with a 4/4/1 split, it was a very weak decision
Texas v. Johnson
The court ruled that burning an American flag is covered under Free speech
Bush v. Gore
The court ruled that manual recounts of presidential ballots in the Nov. 2000 election could not proceed because inconsistent evaluation standards in different counties violated the equal protection clause. In effect, the ruling meant Bush would win the election.
Protects the freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and freedom of the press as well as the right to assemble and petition the government; press precedence created the "Zenger Trial"
Protects an individual's right to bear arms
Prohibits the forced quartering of soldiers out of war time
Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures; requires search warrants based on probable cause
Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy
Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel.
Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common law.
Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment.
Protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution.
Limits the powers of the federal government to those delegated to it by the Constitution
immunity of states from certain suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders; lays the foundation for sovereign immunity
Revises presidential election procedures
Abolishes slavery, and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post-Civil War issues.
Prohibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
Establishes the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote.
establishes prohibition of alcohol
Establishes women's suffrage
Fixes the dates of term commencements for Congress and the President; known as the "lame duck amendment"
Repeals the Eighteenth Amendment and prohibits violations of state laws regarding alcohol
Limits the president to two terms, or a maximum of 10 years
Provides for representation of Washington, D.C. in the Electoral College
Prohibits the revocation of voting rights due to the non-payment of poll taxes
Confides the Tyler Precedent; defines the process of presidential succession
Establishes the official voting age to be 18 years old
Prevents laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until the beginning of the next session of Congress
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