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the branch of psychology that investigates the physiological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental problems
the study if the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system and the brain
major life events, such as the death of a family member, that have immediate negative consequences that generally fade with time
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
a phenomenon in which victims of major catastrophes or strong personal stressors feel long-lasting effects that may include re-experiencing the event in vivid flashbacks or dreams
everyday annoyances, such as being stuck in traffic, that cause minor irritations and may have long term ill effects if they continue or are compounded by other stressful events
a rise in hormone secretions by the adrenal glands, an increase in heart and blood pressure, and changes in how well the skin conducts electrical impulses
medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties
Ex. Psychophysiological Disorders:
high blood pressure, headaches, backaches, skin rashes, indigestion, fatigue, constipation, and common cold.
General Adaptation Syndrome
theory developed by Selye that suggests that a person's response to a stressor consists of 3 stages: alarm and mobilization, resistances, and exhaustion
third stage of G.A.S.; a persons ability to adapt to the stressor declines to the point where negative consequences of stress appear
Negative Consequences of Stress
physical illness, inability to concentrate, heightened irritability, disorientation, or a loss of touch with reality
Major Consequences from Stress:
-Direct Physiological Effects
-Indirect Health-Related Behaviors
Direct Physiological Effects:
increased blood pressure, increase in hormonal activity, overall decline in the functioning of the immune system.
Indirect Health-Related Behaviors:
reduction in likelihood if obtaining health care and decreased compliance with medical advice.
people try to manage their emotions un face of stress, seeking to change the way they feel about or perceive a problem
a person may use wishful thinking to reduce stress or use a more direct escape route, such as drug use, alcohol use, or overreacting
unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others
a state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled- a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances, even if they actually can exert some influence
a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness, consisting of the components: commitment, challenge, and control
a disagreeable emotional and cognitive reaction that results from the restriction of one's freedom
people's own evaluation of their lives in terms of both their thoughts and their emotions
memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve
a set of active, temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information
memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, sometimes referred to as non-declarative memory
memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that as used to deduce other facts
memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives
the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed
memories of which people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior
a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept
memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they a represented as a snapshot of the event
organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled
forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory
interference in which information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material
interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different material
a disease that afflicts long-term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact but including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat the same story
conflict in which the individual must choose between two attractive stimuli or circumstances
conflict in which the individual must choose between two unattractive stimuli or circumstances
conflict involving a single stimulus or circumstances that has both positive and negative characteristics
Type A personality
excessively competitive, hard driven, impatient, hostile (increased heart attack)
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