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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
3 - Revolution (All)
Terms in this set (96)
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer who founded Quebec.
The French colonies in America extending from the St. Lawrence River area in modern Quebec province of Canada, to the Great Lakes Region, and down the Mississippi River to Louisiana.
The region around the Ohio River including most of the modern states of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, West Virginia and (western) Pennsylvania
A gathering of colonial leaders in 1754 to plan coordinated defense against Native American and French attack during the Seven Years War. Some delegates, especially Benjamin Franklin, argued for a unified government for all 13 colonies, but this plan was rejected.
A person who measures land to define official boundaries
Makeshift fort build by Washington's men after defeat by the French and Native Americans. The French build Fort Duquesne in its place and it is now the site of the city of Pittsburg.
British general who led the failed attack on Fort Duquesne. He died in the battle.
French fort built at the junction of the Monongahela and Allegany Rivers where they meet to form the Ohio River.
British member of parliament who led Britain to victory in the Seven Years War.
Fall of Montreal
Conclusive battle of the Seven Years War in America. General Wolfe's daring attack successfully surprised the defenses of the Marquis de Montcalm at the Plains of Abraham.
British name given to the captured French Fort Duquesne. It is now the site of Pittsburg.
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Treaty that ended the Seven Years War. France gave all of its mainland North American territory to Britain including Canada and all the lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.
Nickname for British soldiers.
People who illegally imported or exported products. In the colonial era this was done to avoid paying import duties and mercantilist laws.
Proclamation of 1763
Royal order which forbade American colonists from moving over the Appalachian Mountains. It was passed in order to avoid conflict with Native Americans but was widely ignored.
Age of Reason
Nickname for the Enlightenment, characterized by an increased interest in science, new ideas about government and power, and a focus on order inspired by Classical Greece and Rome.
Enlightenment philosopher. His belief that humans are born with certain rights (he wrote "Life, Liberty and Property") inspired Thomas Jefferson and other American revolutionaries.
Time period in Europe and America in the 1700s characterized by an increased interest in science, new ideas about government and power, and a focus on order inspired by Classical Greece and Rome
Massachusetts minister who advocated for scientific advancement, including immunization.
French Enlightenment philosopher who argued that the common people should rule though elections.
French Enlightenment philosopher who believed power should be separated between different branches of government instead of concentrated (as was the case of the kings of Europe.
John Peter Zenger
New York printer who was put on trial for libel. He successfully argued that telling the truth was not libel. His case was an important step toward freedom of the press in America.
Knowingly telling a lie about someone to harm them.
Revolt in 1676 of poor Virginians against the colonial leadership led by Nathaniel Bacon. They felt that the royal governor was not providing protection from Native American attack and generally mistrusted the elites of the colony.
Leader of Bacon's Rebellion.
Royal governor who was eventually suppressed Bacon's Rebellion.
Poor farmers in rural North Carolina who fought against the colonial government. Like Bacon's Rebellion, they focused on perceived and real injustices at the hands of the wealthy.
A group of Scots-Irish settlers in Pennsylvania who threatened to attack Philadelphia. Like the followers of Bacon or the Regulators, they were unhappy that the elites of the colony were not providing protection from Native American attack.
An economic system in which colonies were only allowed to trade with the mother country.
Taxes paid on imported products.
A British policy of not enforcing laws in the American colonies before 1763.
Agreement signed in 1215 between the King of England and the nobles limiting the power of the monarchy.
1765 law that established a tax on printed material.
1765 law that required colonist to allow British troops to live and eat in their private homes.
Stamp Act Congress
Meeting of colonial leaders in 1754 to seek solutions to the problems caused by the Stamp Act.
Sons of Liberty
A group of American patriots (all men) who promoted independence.
Tar and Feathering
A form of torture in which a person covered in hot tar and feathers. It was painful and potentially deadly. It was used by some Patriots on British customs officers.
Daughters of Liberty
Groups of colonial women who promoted independence, especially by participating in boycotts of British goods.
Committees of Correspondence
Groups of Patriots throughout the colonies who passed pro-independence messages.
Patriot from Boston who organized the Boston Tea Party. He was known for his skillful political organizing and ability to provoke a response through direct action.
Patriot from Boston. He was the primary promoter of independence at the Continental Congress and became the second president.
Boston Patriot and silversmith. His engraving of the Boston Massacre helped promote the cause for independence. He also helped warn minutemen in surrounding towns of the approaching British troops on the morning of the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
British law passed in 1776 after the repeal of the Stamp Act. It asserted Parliament's right to make laws for the Colonies.
Open letter to the King and Parliament started by the Massachusetts legislature and approved by other colonial legislatures. In it the colonial leaders voiced opposition to taxation without representation.
No Taxation Without Representation
Idea that the government should not levy taxes unless the people who must pay those taxes have the opportunity to elect members of that government.
Riot in 1770 between Boston citizens and British troops. It was exploited by Patriots to enflame anti-British sentiment.
Former slave who was killed at the Boston Massacre
Boston Tea Party
Protest by Boston Patriots led by Samuel Adams in which a cargo of tea was destroyed. It resulted in the closing of Boston Harbor.
Laws passed in 1774 closing Boston Harbor as punishment for the Boston Tea Party.
Law passed by Parliament in 1774 that recognized the Catholic Church in Quebec and extended the boundary of Quebec into the Ohio Territory. The English colonists felt that the land should belong to them and were mostly Protestant so they were angered by the official recognition of the Catholic Church.
American nickname for the Coercive and Quebec Acts.
Statements passed by the Massachusetts legislature in 1774 in opposition to the Intolerable Acts. They called for the raising of colonial militias and marked the beginning of official American government outside of the government recognized by the British.
American militiamen, mostly farmers and craftsmen, who would be ready to fight in a minute. They were the Americans who fought at the Battles of Lexington, Concord and Bunker Hill.
Paul Revere's Ride
Poem written in 1860 by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow memorializing Paul Revere's ride to warn colonists of the British attack on Concord.
Battle of Lexington
First battle of the Revolutionary War fought on April 19, 1775. British troops killed eight American minutemen.
Battle of Concord
Second battle of the Revolutionary War fought on April 19, 1775. The British army was stopped and chased back to Boston.
The bridge into Concord where American minutemen stopped the advance of the British troops. It marked the turning point in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775.
Shot Heard 'Round the World
Nickname for the opening battles of the American Revolution, so called because they inspired other Revolutionaries around the world.
First Continental Congress
Meeting of leaders from the colonies in 1774. Prompted by the Stamp Act, they passed the Declaration of Resolves and initiated a boycott of British goods. They also sent the Petition to the King.
Declaration and Resolves
Resolution passed in 1774 by the First Continental Congress calling for a boycott of British goods.
Petition to the King
Letter to the King and Parliament passed by the First Continental Congress in 1774 asking for repeal of the Intolerable Acts.
Author of Common Sense, a pamphlet that convinced many Americans to support independence.
Pamphlet authored by Thomas Paine in 1776 that convinced many Americans to support independence.
Second Continental Congress
Meeting of colonial leaders in 1775 and 1776. They declared independence.
Virginia planter, surveyor, officer in the Seven Years War, leader of the Continental Army in the Revolution, President of the Constitutional Congress and First President of the United States.
Declaration of Causes
1775 declaration passed by the Second Continental Congress explaining why the colonies were fighting against the British government. It did not declare independence.
Olive Branch Petition
Final attempt by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 to find a peaceful resolution to problems between the colonies and the British government. It was ignored by both Parliament and the King.
Richard Henry Lee
Virginia delegate to the Second Continental Congress who proposed the resolution to declare independence.
Author of the Declaration of Independence and later third president.
July 4, 1776
America's independence day.
Declaration of Independence
Statement passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776 officially stating that the United States was independent from Britain.
When in the Course of human events...
Opening words of the Declaration of Independence.
Preamble to the Declaration of Independence
Paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence that contains the lines "all men are created equal" and "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
Boston Patriot who served as President of the Second Continental Congress and was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence. His signature is much larger than the others and is now famous.
German soldiers hired by the British to fight in the Revolutionary War. They were especially despised by the Patriots.
Americans who opposed independence. They were also called Tories.
Americans who opposed independence. They were also called Loyalists.
Americans who supported independence.
Cloth and clothing made a home by American women during the Revolution. Making this was considered the patriotic duty of women who supported the boycott of British products.
Battle in June of 1775 across the Charles River from Boston between Patriots and British troops. It was a British tactical victory, but Americans were able to inflict high casualties on the much larger British force.
Crossing the Delaware
Famous attack led by George Washington in 1776 against Hessian troops in Trenton, New Jersey. It was a surprise attack and an important victory for the fledgling American army.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point battle of the Revolutionary War in 1777. After the Americans showed that they were able to defeat the British on the battlefield, the French agreed to support the American cause.
British plan to divide the colonies with a pincer action. Bergoyne would lead his troops south from Canada and Howe would lead his troops north from New York. The plan failed when Howe stopped to attack Philadelphia and Bergoyne was defeated at Saratoga.
American general at Saratoga.
Location in Pennsylvania of the Continental Army's encampment during the winter of 1777-78. There was enormous suffering due to the cold, lack of food, medicine and clothing. Many American troops left but those that stayed formed a strong fighting force.
Baron von Steuben
Prussian (German) officer who came to American and helped train the Continental Army.
American general who helped win the Battle of Saratoga. Later he became a traitor and tried to turn over the fort at West Point to the British.
British spy who was captured and hung by the Americans.
Fort in New York along the Hudson River. It was a strategic defense preventing the British from dividing the colonies. Benedict Arnold tried to turn over the fort, but his plan failed.
Agreement between France and the United States brokered by Benjamin Franklin. As a result, the French supported the Americans, especially with their navy, and helped defeat the British at Yorktown.
Marquis de Lafayette
French officer who came to support the Continental Army. He became a good friend of George Washington.
French officer who, along with Lafayette, came to support the Continental Army.
British general who surrendered at Yorktown.
Final battle of the Revolutionary War. George Washington was able to prevent a land escape and the French fleet prevented British army from evacuating. Cornwallis was forced to surrender.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Agreement between Britain and the United States that ended the Revolutionary War. Britain recognized American independence and gave the United States all the territory west to the Mississippi River.
Recommended textbook explanations
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James West Davidson, Michael B. Stoff
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Alan Brinkley, Albert S. Broussard, Donald A. Ritchie, James M. McPherson, Joyce Appleby
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