Natural Sciences TOK Vocab
Terms in this set (25)
An observation that somehow seems to contradict a generally accepted theory.
An imaginative hypothesis
From general to particular.
Bason on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather theory or pure logic; someone who sees experience as the main source of knowledge
To disprove any evidence that helps to establish the falsity of something
From particular to general
A philosophy asserting the primacy of observation in assessing the truth of statements of fact and holding that metaphysical and subjective arguments not based on observable data are meaningless. Also called logical posivitism.
The idea that scientists, in attempting to uncover truths about the natural world, must aspire to eliminate personal biases, prior commitments, and emoitonal involvement.
A worldview underlying the theories and methodology of a particular scientific cubject.
Principle of simplicity/Occam's Razor
When 2 competing theories make exactly the same predictions, the simpler theory is preferred.
A claim, belief, or practice that is falsely presented as scientific but does not adhere to a valid scientific method, lacks supporting scientific evidence or plausability, cannot be reliably tested, or otherwise lacks scientific status.
Someone who sees reason as the main source of knowledge
The speech act of answering an attack on your assertions
The key process of science; consists of 5 steps
A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation; A proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without the assumption of its truth
A test under controlled conditions made to demonstrate a known truth, to examine the validity of a hypothesis, or to determine the efficacy of something previously untried.
A controlled experiment is one in which an experimenal group is compared to a control group that varies only in the factor being tested.
Measure relevant variables to add precision and objectivity
Able to be repeated by others to confirm results/objectivity
Selectivity or relevance/ecpectations which can influence what we see/the correct use of scientific equipment/the act of observing can sometimes affect the observation
An explanation or model based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning, especially one that has been tested and confirmed as a general principle helping to explain and predict natural phenomena
A statement that describes the invatiable relationships among phenomena under a specified set of conditions. Since laws are based on a limited number of observations, absolute certainty can never ba achieved
Science is the only was we can make sense of reality and discover the thruth
The occurance and development of events by chance
Subjective elements in science include observations, hypotheses, and laws