Macroevolution relies on _____, ___________ analysis, and ___________ or clades.
fossils, molecular, phylogenies
Reproductive isolation prevents ___ ___, which leads to ______ _______, or differing species.
gene flow, genetic divergence
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms include (5)
1 Geographic barriers
2 habitat isolation
5 hybrid inviability/infertility
All RIMS act to STOP ____ ____, which is necessary to _______ the _______ of a species.
gene flow, maintain, integrity
The ecological species concept says that species...or...
...interbreed but maintain species boundaries,
...or don't interbreed btwn species but maintain species coherence
The ecological species concept emphasizes the ____ for ________ ________s to change...
need, selective pressure
The ecological species concept was developed to decrease emphasis solely on __________.
Morphological similarities refer to similar ________, or ____________al similarities
The 2 issues (for anthro's) with speciation are:
1. need fossil records, too slow to observe in geological time scale
2. occurs too quick to detect in fossil record
Microevolution influences speciation through 4 methods (i.e. mechanisms of change)
1. gene flow
2. natural selection
3. genetic drift
Natural selection affects speciation through ______ ________ affecting _______ _______
specific pressures, reproductive success
Allopatric speciation = _____ __________ + __________ __________
geographic separation + directional selection
Directional pressures in allopatric speciation emphasize the fact that ________ have the highest ________, because different __________s lead to different advantages.
extremes, fitness, phenotypes
An example of directional selection extremes include _____ fish and _______ fish
There are 4 theories of how macroevolution works:
2. Punctuated Equilibrium
3. Successive Speciation
4. Adaptive Radiation
_________ states that species evolve at a _____ rate, resulting in _______ change
Punctuated equilibrium states that species...
...remain unchanged, and then undergo rapid & major change
Successive speciation states that...
...one single population has been breeding for many generations
Successive speciation involves 2 things:
1. many adaptive mutations
2. progressive change in the entire population
Mass extinctions influence future speciation, specifically through the method of adaptive radiation, by leaving many ______s __________ed.
The Great Tree of Life video used the example of __________ _________s leading to __________s resulting in purple bunnies
The Great Tree of Life video used the example of selective pressures leading to mutations resulting in _______ _________s
In the Great Tree of Life video, there was a massive _______ resembling human flesh.
In the Great Tree of Life video, there was a massive flower resembling _______ ______
The fossil record is ________, with always more _______ _____ than known ones
The fossil record is incomplete, with always ____ missing links than ____ ones
The number of fossils discovered come from all different parts during a ________'s ____________.
The number of _______discovered come from all different parts during a specie's development.
There are many evolutionary _____ ____s in the process of speciation because it involves working with ____ events.
dead ends, rare
Phylogeny and evolution often ___________ with each other, which hinders our ability to know which _____ are our ancestors
__________ and evolution often interfere with each other, which hinders our ability to know which fossils are our _________s
An example in class of there being many different ways something can fit into a phylogenetic tree was _______ _____
Filling in phylogenetic relationships involves ________ _________
Filling in __________ relationships involves evolutionary biology
some scientists believe the Neanderthals were an ___________ ____ ___
some scientists believe the ____________s were an evolutionary dead end