56 terms



Terms in this set (...)

emerging adulthood
a distinct period of development that differs from adolescence and young adulthood; takes place between 18-35 years of age and is characterized by independent role exploration and recent change
typical 21 year old in 1970
married or about to be married
caring for a child or planning a pregnancy
done with education
settled into a job or role of full-time mother
typical 21 year old today
marriage and parenthood not for another 5 years
education may last more years
will experience job change
why has the typical 21 year old changed so much today?
birth control, sexual revolution, increase in years of higher education, change in women's role, change in how young people view becoming an adult
how do adolescents, emerging adults, and young adults view love?
adolescents: dating primarily recreational/experimental
emerging adults: serious search for a partner
young adults: 75% married with children
what is work/education for adolescents?
service jobs, purpose of work is to support leisure activities, 95% enrolled in school
what is work/education like for emerging adults?
groundwork for adult occupations, 60% go to higher education, 32% complete 4 or more years of college, trying out unusual work/educational possibilities
what is work/education for young adults?
settled into a career, only 10% involved in higher education
age of instability...changing the plan (4)
changing major in college, dropping out of college, dissatisfaction with work, romantic relationships
reports of what and what are higher during emerging adulthood than at any other time in life
drug use and loneliness
what are the top three criteria for achieving adulthood?
accepting responsibility for yourself
making independent decisions
being financially independent
open, supportive, and tender relationship without the fear of losing one's self; able to put aside self at times because self is secure
self-absorption, fear of losing one's self, unwillingness to compromise
in adolescence, female friendships are what with emphasis on what?
face to face; self-disclosure
in adolescence, male friendships are what with emphasis on what what and what?
side by side; cooperation, leadership, and competition
in adulthood, males demonstrate more _____, less _____, and less _____-_____ than females
competitiveness; agreement; self-disclosure
self-disclosure levels in friendship:
lowest: male/male
higher: male/female
highest: female/female
who do males often name their best friend as?
their wife
who do women most often name their best friend as
another woman
divorce is more emotionally devastation for who?
identity status and intimacy: foreclosed
avoid conflict
identity status and intimacy: diffused
difficult with commitment, adopt partner's identity, lack depth
identity status and intimacy: moratorium
still figuring it out
identity status and intimacy: achieved
most successful
commitment made and crises experienced
commitment made and no crisis experienced
no commitment made and is experiencing crises
no commitment made and no crises experienced
males are more likely to enter into a committed relationship after what?
after career plans are made
who initiates divorce more often?
to feel and know I am being real, genuine, and honest in realtionships
to be attuned to other's feelings and thoughts
how do we foster healthy relationships?
mutual empathy (emotional responsivity)
mutual authenticity (relational honesty)
what is the average duration of a marriage?
9 years
average ages of males and females at marriage in 1970
males: just under 23 females: just above 20
average ages of males and females at marriage today
males: just above 27 females: just above 25
who writes "The Marriage-Go-Round" and what was his advice?
Andrew Cherlin: slow down!
children who have experienced multiple transitions at home (4)
have more behavior problems at school
have sex at an earlier age
less likely to graduate from high school
more likely to have a first child outside marriage
four myths about marriage
1. conflict will ruin your marriage
2. affairs at the main cause of divorce
3. men are not biologically made for marriage
4. the best marriages are when couples have the same interests
what matters in a relationship?
friendships and mutual respect
what four things help to make a marriage work?
1. solving solvable problems
2. letting your partner influence you
3. creating a shared meaning of marriage
4. turn toward each other rather than away
an unhappy marriage increases an individual's risk of getting sick by _____% and can even shorten a person's life by _____years
30%; 4 years
in 50s and 60s, what were the top two reasons for marriage?
having children and creating stability
today, what is the top reason for marriage?
personal happiness and fulfillment
percentage of Americans who consider children as very important to a successful marriage dropped from _____% in 1990 to _____% in 2011
65% to 40%
sharing household chores has moved up in importance from _____% in 1990 to _____% today
47% to 62%
career women's marital satisfaction decreases when marriage involves an
unequal division of labor
pew research center (ranked in order) (9)
being faithful, happy sexual relationship, sharing household chores, adequate income, good housing, shared religious beliefs, shared interests, having children, agreement on politics
advantages of parenthood (8)
giving/receiving warmth and affection, stimulation and fun that children bring, responsible and mature member of community, someone to provide care in old age, sense of accomplishment and creativity from helping kids grow, learning to become less selfish and to sacrifice, someone to carry on after death, help with parent's work and add their own income to family's resources
sexual socialization
process of learning how to be a sexual person and how to have sexual relationships through the modeling of observed behavior from peers, family, and media
_____ is top contributor to sexual activity today
_____ is the top contributor from media sources to sexual socialization today
images that have as their focus the depiction of mutually pleasurable sexual expression between people who have enough power to be there by positive choice; no sexist or violent connotations and are hinged on equal power dynamics between individual and camera
images that portray acts of submission or violence by positioning of models or use of props; imply unequal power relationships by differential dress, costuming, positioning, or by setting up viewer as a voyeur
pro-porn feminists
pornography will liberate women to appreciate their bodies, enjoy sex, and not feel guilty about it; celebrates our sexuality
anti-porn feminists
pornography is degrading to women because if objectifies them; users will soon objectify all women not just porn stars and sexual assault will become rampart