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1st Punic War (years)

264-241 BCE

2nd Punic War (years)

218-202 BCE

3rd Punic War (years)

149-146 BCE

Hannibal Barca

hated Rome (for Carthage), military genius, est. Barcelona, never lost on Italian soil but couldn't push conclusion of war. @ war - exiled/military advisor to enemies of Rome

Cause of 1st Punic war

Rome fears Carthage might get control of Messina (Sicilian colony port)
end of war: peace agreement - Rome gets sicily/Carthage has to pay reparations (not harsh terms)

Cause of 2nd Punic War

Rome thinks Carthage expanding to Spain = threat/wages war. Hannibal throws off Rome w/elephants, etc. but doesn't have support of Rome's Latin allies, Battle of Trasimene, Battle of Connae, Battle of Zama (end of war)

Battle of Trasimene

Carthage defeats Rome w/Hannibal and Gauls (against Gaius Flaiminius), Rome ambushed (10x casualties), over in 3 hrs, Rome has to fight hand-to-hand. @war: Rome ignores "Fabian strategy" (from dictator Quintus Fabius Maximus)

Battle of Cannae

Rome rushes into battle after Trasimene (embarassed, in code blue), ignores quintus fabius (wants to wait), compulsory draft, loses to Hannibal

Battle of Zama

final battle of 2nd punic war (modern day Tunisia), Scipio Africanus vs. Hannibal, @ battle: Carthage sues for peace, terms: Carthage no longer power in mediterranean, pay 3x more $

Cause of 3rd Punic War

Rome suspicious of Carthage, Carthage gets back some of old territory, Rome incites demolition of Carthage, Cato the Elder/Scipio Aemilianus vs. Carthage, population killed or enslaved, city razed

Scipio Africanus

the "Roman Hannibal", general in 2nd Punic war, Roman rep. statesman, 206 - elected consul, wants war --> Africa (battle of Zama), senate disagrees but overruled, peace negotiations - senate distrusts Carthage b/c of 1st Punic war, admired Hannibal

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