The chances that a work of art from ancient times will be found or preserved are greatly increased if
a. it was made of durable materials.
b. the local climate is conducive to preservation.
c. the culture from which it came was stable and organized.
d. it was located where access from the outside world was limited.
e. All these answers are correct.
All the above
To compensate for the natural visual distortion in which tall columns appear to bend inward, the Greeks gave them a slight bulge, which is known as
All of the following cultures were Mesopotamian EXCEPT
a. the Sumerian.
b. the Babylonian.
c. the Assyrian.
d. the Akkadian.
e. the Minoan.
In Egyptian art, the convention of representing social importance by size--for example, where the pharaoh is shown much larger than his subjects--is known as
The earliest-known writing system from which a recorded language developed was the invention of
A true arch was developed by ________ architects long before the Romans came up with the idea.
Three major cultures that preceded the Greeks in and around the Aegean Sea were the ________ cultures.
Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean
Although bronze was the favored material for freestanding sculpture in Greece, most bronze statues have not survived, because
they were melted down to make weapons and other objects
Romans could watch gladiators fight to the death, along with other sporting events, at the
Although we know almost nothing about the culture that created them, the abstract ________ of the Cycladic culture appear extremely sophisticated for five-thousand-year-old works.
female nude figures
The mummy of Artemidoros, from Fayum, shows the influence of the ________ culture(s).
Egyptian, Greek, and Roman
21. The portrait bust of __________ is presented in a naturalistic and elegant style that is timeless.
One of the many standard Greek pottery shapes is a krater and belongs to the period known as
Because Christianity emphasized congregational worship, a fundamental change in the ________ was needed.
architectural design of places of worship
The cross-shaped floor plan of a church is formed by the combined shapes of the nave and the
The mosaic Christ as the Sun exemplifies early Christian artists' appropriation of ________ iconography.
both Greek and Roman
Unlike their Greek and Roman predecessors, Byzantine artists preferred
a flattened, abstracted style of art.
Architects of Romanesque churches began installing ________ around the apse, which allowed the overflow of pilgrims to circulate freely around the interior of the church.
The art and architecture of the high Middle Ages is generally divided into two periods, the ________ and the ________.
All the following are features of Romanesque architecture EXCEPT
a. thick stone walls.
b. barrel-vaulted stone ceilings.
c. overall massiveness.
d. large windows of stained glass.
e. round arches.
large windows of stained glass
Duccio and Giotto were two artists whose innovations in ________ greatly influenced Renaissance painting styles.
creating figures and settings with increased naturalism
What purpose is served by the carved figures that adorn the entryways at Chartres Cathedral?
They serve as reminders that one is entering a sacred space.
Soaring open spaces, pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, and stained glass windows are characteristic of
In his painting ________, the artist Duccio pioneered the use of architecture to define space and direct movement.
"Christ Entering Jerusalem"
The transition from Romanesque to Gothic style can be seen in the ________ at Chartres Cathedral.
architecture and sculpture
The term pantokrater, used in the title of the mosaic Christ as the Pantokater, is Greek for
ruler of all
The gold-hammered vessel set with gems that contained the remains of Saint Foy is called a
One of the effects of the Renaissance was to change the status of artists in Europe from
skilled crafts workers to intellectuals
The Renaissance artists from Venice, such as Giovanni Bellini, Titian, and Giorgione, were especially known for their mastery of
color and light
________ organization, as seen in Masaccio's Trinity with the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors, was a popular device among Renaissance artists of Italy.
Leonardo da Vinci was a skilled
e. All these answers are correct.
all of the above
Northern European Renaissance artists began using the system of linear perspective
about 75 years after it was first developed
Which 15th-century invention led to the decrease in the practice of illumination by hand?
the printing press
The Isenheim Altarpiece, with its gruesome details of Christ's flesh wounds, originally hung in
a hospital for patients with skin disease
The movement that divided all of Europe into Protestant and Catholic camps is called
The painting, The Harvesters, which formed part of a cycle depicting the months of the year, was painted by __________, a 16th-century Netherland painter.
Pieter Brugel the Elder
The iconography of The Tempest, by ___________, is unknown, but the painting made an important contribution to Renaissance art in the way it was composed.
Because many European monarchs of the 17th and 18th centuries ruled with near-dictatorial power, this period is often referred to as
The Age of Kings
Gianlorenzo Bernini was
a. a sculptor.
b. an architect.
c. a dramatist.
d. a composer.
e. All these answers are correct.
all the above
In Baroque architecture, wall surfaces often protrude into the viewer's space. In Baroque painting, this same effect is created through the use of
The Baroque painting Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes depicts a story from
The following characteristics are all typical of Italian Baroque art EXCEPT
c. classic simplicity.
The following is true about Rembrandt EXCEPT
a. he was born in the Dutch city of Leiden.
b. he was a master of multiple types of painting, including portraits, landscapes, and religious scenes.
c. he painted self-portraits throughout his career.
d. he achieved and maintained financial success throughout his life.
e. he was the son of a miller.
he achieved and maintained financial success throughout his life
Unlike Baroque art from Catholic countries, Dutch Baroque art focused upon
the community, business life, and the family and home
Among the following artists, whose innovation was it to create group portraits in the setting of an activity, rather than posing the subjects formally?
Which artists intentionally used their work to shape the public's view of prominent figures?
Vigée-Lebrun and David
A work of art that uses a tragic Roman tale to arouse feelings of patriotism, self-sacrifice, and civic virtues in its viewers is
The Oath of the Horatii.
For some two hundred years, many of the works of Judith Leyster were
mistakenly identified as the work of Frans Hals.
One of the most influential buildings of the architect Francisco Borromini was
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
Foremost among French painters of the 17th century was ___________ who painted _________.
Nicolas Poussin; The Ashes of Phokion
The first national art museum opened in 1793. This museum, still in operation today, is
the Louvre in Paris.
Which art movement was directly influenced by Sigmund Freud's theories of the unconscious?
In their paintings, the Impressionists often focused on
scenes of leisure involving the middle class.
A major influence upon European culture of the 19th century, one that gave rise to an expanding middle class, was
the Industrial Revolution.
Henri Matisse was told by Gustave Moreau, his teacher at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, "You were born to ________."
The manufacture of oil paint in tubes made it possible for 19th-century European artists to make painting a portable activity. The spontaneity and directness of painting outdoors is evident in works by ________ artists.
Which of the following is an American artist?
a. Henry Ossawa Tanner
b. Thomas Eakins
c. Mary Cassatt
d. George Caleb Bingham
e. All these answers are correct
All the above
Marcel Duchamp created a new art form in which the artist makes nothing, but merely labels an object as art. He called this art form
How did Impressionism get its name?
A critic used the term to describe the movement after seeing the painting Impression: Sunrise, and it caught on.
Paul Cézanne's emphasis on structure in painting was a direct influence in the development of
Vasili Kandinsky became convinced that art should be free of representational subject matter when he
mistook an upside-down painting of his for an unfamiliar work of spectacular beauty.
Which of the following artists was a Realist?
a. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
b. Eugène Delacroix
c. Gustave Courbet
d. Jacques-Louis David
e. All these answers are correct.
The term Post-Impressionism refers to
a neutral term describing the varied directions of a few artists who both accepted and rejected some of the aims of Impressionism.
Edouard Manet "borrowed" the composition of his painting Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) from
Renaissance works of art.
If Fauvism's mission was to liberate color from its descriptive role, Cubism's initial aim was
to reduce the role of color to a minimum; to invent a new system for depicting form and space on a flat surface; and to find a way of representing the fact that human perception involves multiple viewpoints.
The first art movement to be born in the 19th century was ___________, which arose as a reaction against Neoclassicism and Romanticism.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917 many artists believed that only the most revolutionary art could bring about a new movement, which was called
_____________, who designed a famous armchair, was a student of the Bauhaus school of design in Germany.
The term New York School refers to a postwar art movement that
was a convenient way to lump together the Abstract Expressionists.
The Women series of paintings by Willem de Kooning caused a stir in the art world. They were
seen as shocking and brutal.
The Guerrilla Girls use posters and on-site appearances to
bring attention to gender inequalities in the art world.
Jasper Johns chose familiar images for his subject matter so that he could then concentrate on all of the following EXCEPT
the psychological use of color.
One of the ideas behind Postmodernism is pluralism, which proposes that art
can take many directions at the same time, all of them equally valid.
The term action painting refers to the fact that this new type of painting
traced the actions of the painter.
Minimalism, a trend that coexisted with Pop, emphasized a continuation of the exploration of nonrepresentation and the idea that a painting or sculpture is primarily
a physical object.
Early Conceptualists reacted to the burgeoning art market by
attempting to eliminate the art object.
In Joseph Kosuth's One and Three Chairs, the viewer is presented with
three ways of documenting an idea.
Anselm Kiefer was one of the most prominent Neo-Expressionists. His work
dealt directly with the trauma of Germany's past.
A Neo-Dada artist who made art from "found" materials and images and named his new art form "combine paintings" is
Allan Kaprow took art in a new direction with "happenings." His primary claim was
that art was most like life itself.
A new art form known as "installation"
creates an environment for the viewer to enter and experience.
One of the names most closely associated with Performance art is ___________, who is known for the multimedia work Stories from the Nerve Bible.
What type of material did Subodh Gupta use in making the work Very Hungry God?
steel pots and buckets
Knowledge of what would have enriched the experience of those who visited Gupta's Very Hungry God?
Hindu rituals and beliefs
Which of the following permitted Emily Jacir the freedom to produce her project Where We Come From?
her American passport
Takashi Murakami is inspired by otaku, which is a Japanese term that refers to
people with all-consuming interests.
Evoking a Hindu ritual, Subodh Gupta did what outside the church that housed his Very Hungry God?
Refrigerator magnets depicting Michelangelo's David and Botticelli's Venus as jewelry are an example of
In Neto's Leviathan Thot, the artist thinks of his work as a ____________, another art of gravity, grace, balance and interaction.