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I'm just copying the question and the answer (not the multiple choice options) unless the answer is "all of the above"

The chances that a work of art from ancient times will be found or preserved are greatly increased if
a. it was made of durable materials.
b. the local climate is conducive to preservation.
c. the culture from which it came was stable and organized.
d. it was located where access from the outside world was limited.
e. All these answers are correct.

All the above

Because they lacked stone, the ancient Sumerians built their cities from

sun-dried brick

To compensate for the natural visual distortion in which tall columns appear to bend inward, the Greeks gave them a slight bulge, which is known as


All of the following cultures were Mesopotamian EXCEPT
a. the Sumerian.
b. the Babylonian.
c. the Assyrian.
d. the Akkadian.
e. the Minoan.

the Minoan

The bronze head of an Akkadian ruler is a rare example of ________ in ancient art.


The most notable example of Neolithic architecture in Europe is

Stonehenge in England

In Egyptian art, the convention of representing social importance by size--for example, where the pharaoh is shown much larger than his subjects--is known as

hierarchical scale

Under the reign of ________, a new, more naturalistic style of Egyptian art developed.

Amenhotep IV

The earliest-known writing system from which a recorded language developed was the invention of

the Sumerians

King Tutankhamun's tomb was discovered in 1922 by

Howard Carter

A true arch was developed by ________ architects long before the Romans came up with the idea.


Three major cultures that preceded the Greeks in and around the Aegean Sea were the ________ cultures.

Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean

Although bronze was the favored material for freestanding sculpture in Greece, most bronze statues have not survived, because

they were melted down to make weapons and other objects

Romans could watch gladiators fight to the death, along with other sporting events, at the


According to historians, the Roman era began in 510 B.C.E. with

the founding of the Roman Republic

Although we know almost nothing about the culture that created them, the abstract ________ of the Cycladic culture appear extremely sophisticated for five-thousand-year-old works.

female nude figures

What destroyed the Roman colonies of Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 C.E.?

volcanic eruption

The mummy of Artemidoros, from Fayum, shows the influence of the ________ culture(s).

Egyptian, Greek, and Roman

21. The portrait bust of __________ is presented in a naturalistic and elegant style that is timeless.


22. The Great Sphinx at Giza, in Egypt, has the body of a lion and the head of a(n)


One of the many standard Greek pottery shapes is a krater and belongs to the period known as

Late Geometric

The walled, upward extension of the nave that is pierced with windows is called the


Because Christianity emphasized congregational worship, a fundamental change in the ________ was needed.

architectural design of places of worship

The cross-shaped floor plan of a church is formed by the combined shapes of the nave and the


The major axis of a central-plan church, such as the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, is


The mosaic Christ as the Sun exemplifies early Christian artists' appropriation of ________ iconography.

both Greek and Roman

Unlike their Greek and Roman predecessors, Byzantine artists preferred

a flattened, abstracted style of art.

Architects of Romanesque churches began installing ________ around the apse, which allowed the overflow of pilgrims to circulate freely around the interior of the church.


________ is a pattern or patterns formed by intricately interwoven ribbons or bands.


The art and architecture of the high Middle Ages is generally divided into two periods, the ________ and the ________.

Romanesque; Gothic

All the following are features of Romanesque architecture EXCEPT
a. thick stone walls.
b. barrel-vaulted stone ceilings.
c. overall massiveness.
d. large windows of stained glass.
e. round arches.

large windows of stained glass

Gothic cathedrals are known especially for

their stained glass windows

The technique in which colored yarns are sewn to an existing woven background is called


The ________ is the walkway directly in front of a church that serves as the entry porch.


Duccio and Giotto were two artists whose innovations in ________ greatly influenced Renaissance painting styles.

creating figures and settings with increased naturalism

Abbot Suger's church near Paris, Saint-Denis, is the first ________ church ever built.


The Palace Chapel at Aachen was built for ________ as his personal place of worship.


What purpose is served by the carved figures that adorn the entryways at Chartres Cathedral?

They serve as reminders that one is entering a sacred space.

Soaring open spaces, pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, and stained glass windows are characteristic of

Gothic cathedrals

In his painting ________, the artist Duccio pioneered the use of architecture to define space and direct movement.

"Christ Entering Jerusalem"

The transition from Romanesque to Gothic style can be seen in the ________ at Chartres Cathedral.

architecture and sculpture

The ________ technique was used to complete the Empress Theodora and Retinue in 547 C.E.


The term pantokrater, used in the title of the mosaic Christ as the Pantokater, is Greek for

ruler of all

The gold-hammered vessel set with gems that contained the remains of Saint Foy is called a


Who were the Limbourgs?

artist brothers

In Neo-Platonic thought, the Biblical character of Eve was identified with


One of the effects of the Renaissance was to change the status of artists in Europe from

skilled crafts workers to intellectuals

The word renaissance means


The technology of painting with oils was developed

by northern Europeans

The Renaissance artists from Venice, such as Giovanni Bellini, Titian, and Giorgione, were especially known for their mastery of

color and light

The technique of sfumato involves the use of

multiple layers of glazes

________ organization, as seen in Masaccio's Trinity with the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors, was a popular device among Renaissance artists of Italy.


Leonardo da Vinci was a skilled
a. engineer.
b. inventor.
c. painter.
d. architect.
e. All these answers are correct.

all of the above

Giorgione's painting The Tempest paved the way for future

landscape paintings

Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli were all commissioned to make art for

the Medici family

One of Michelangelo's major achievements was

redesigning St. Peter's Cathedral

Northern European Renaissance artists began using the system of linear perspective

about 75 years after it was first developed

Artists working in the Early Renaissance period included

Botticelli, Donatello, and Ghiberti

Which 15th-century invention led to the decrease in the practice of illumination by hand?

the printing press

The Isenheim Altarpiece, with its gruesome details of Christ's flesh wounds, originally hung in

a hospital for patients with skin disease

The movement that divided all of Europe into Protestant and Catholic camps is called

the Reformation

The painting, The Harvesters, which formed part of a cycle depicting the months of the year, was painted by __________, a 16th-century Netherland painter.

Pieter Brugel the Elder

The sculptor of the panel The Story of Jacob and Esau, and Donatello's teacher, is

Lorenzo Ghiberti

The iconography of The Tempest, by ___________, is unknown, but the painting made an important contribution to Renaissance art in the way it was composed.


Which work of art tells the story of a man who was murdered in his bath?

The Death of Marat

Because many European monarchs of the 17th and 18th centuries ruled with near-dictatorial power, this period is often referred to as

The Age of Kings

Gianlorenzo Bernini was
a. a sculptor.
b. an architect.
c. a dramatist.
d. a composer.
e. All these answers are correct.

all the above

Paintings depicting scenes of everyday life are known as ________ paintings.


What nationality was Peter Paul Rubens?


In Baroque architecture, wall surfaces often protrude into the viewer's space. In Baroque painting, this same effect is created through the use of

dramatic lighting

The Baroque painting Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes depicts a story from

the Bible

The following characteristics are all typical of Italian Baroque art EXCEPT
a. ornamentation.
b. theatricality.
c. classic simplicity.
d. movement.
e. emotion.

Classic Simplicity

The following is true about Rembrandt EXCEPT
a. he was born in the Dutch city of Leiden.
b. he was a master of multiple types of painting, including portraits, landscapes, and religious scenes.
c. he painted self-portraits throughout his career.
d. he achieved and maintained financial success throughout his life.
e. he was the son of a miller.

he achieved and maintained financial success throughout his life

The Palace of Versailles was home to

Louis XIV of France

________ helped shape the Neoclassical style.

The excavations of ancient Pompeii and Herculaneum

Unlike Baroque art from Catholic countries, Dutch Baroque art focused upon

the community, business life, and the family and home

St. Teresa in Ecstasy is an excellent example of

Baroque sculpture

Among the following artists, whose innovation was it to create group portraits in the setting of an activity, rather than posing the subjects formally?


Which of the following was court painter to King Philip IV?

Diego Velázquez

Which artists intentionally used their work to shape the public's view of prominent figures?

Vigée-Lebrun and David

In comparison to Baroque art, the style of Rococo

is more playful and lighthearted.

One of Queen Marie-Antoinette's favorite portrait painters was

Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun.

A work of art that uses a tragic Roman tale to arouse feelings of patriotism, self-sacrifice, and civic virtues in its viewers is

The Oath of the Horatii.

For some two hundred years, many of the works of Judith Leyster were

mistakenly identified as the work of Frans Hals.

Typical of Dutch landscape painting was the work of

Jacob van Ruisdael

One of the most influential buildings of the architect Francisco Borromini was

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

Foremost among French painters of the 17th century was ___________ who painted _________.

Nicolas Poussin; The Ashes of Phokion

A good example of a Surrealist poetic object is

Object (Luncheon in Fur) by Meret Oppenheim.

The first national art museum opened in 1793. This museum, still in operation today, is

the Louvre in Paris.

Which art movement was directly influenced by Sigmund Freud's theories of the unconscious?


In their paintings, the Impressionists often focused on

scenes of leisure involving the middle class.

Eugène Delacroix was a leading practitioner of the

Romantic style

A major influence upon European culture of the 19th century, one that gave rise to an expanding middle class, was

the Industrial Revolution.

Henri Matisse was told by Gustave Moreau, his teacher at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, "You were born to ________."

simplify painting

The manufacture of oil paint in tubes made it possible for 19th-century European artists to make painting a portable activity. The spontaneity and directness of painting outdoors is evident in works by ________ artists.


Which of the following is an American artist?
a. Henry Ossawa Tanner
b. Thomas Eakins
c. Mary Cassatt
d. George Caleb Bingham
e. All these answers are correct

All the above

Marcel Duchamp created a new art form in which the artist makes nothing, but merely labels an object as art. He called this art form


How did Impressionism get its name?

A critic used the term to describe the movement after seeing the painting Impression: Sunrise, and it caught on.

Paul Cézanne's emphasis on structure in painting was a direct influence in the development of


Romantic art stresses

drama, unbridled emotions, and complex compositions.

Vasili Kandinsky became convinced that art should be free of representational subject matter when he

mistook an upside-down painting of his for an unfamiliar work of spectacular beauty.

Which of the following artists was a Realist?
a. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
b. Eugène Delacroix
c. Gustave Courbet
d. Jacques-Louis David
e. All these answers are correct.

Gustave Courbet

The term Post-Impressionism refers to

a neutral term describing the varied directions of a few artists who both accepted and rejected some of the aims of Impressionism.

Edouard Manet "borrowed" the composition of his painting Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) from

Renaissance works of art.

Pointillism is a technique developed by

Georges Seurat.

If Fauvism's mission was to liberate color from its descriptive role, Cubism's initial aim was

to reduce the role of color to a minimum; to invent a new system for depicting form and space on a flat surface; and to find a way of representing the fact that human perception involves multiple viewpoints.

The first art movement to be born in the 19th century was ___________, which arose as a reaction against Neoclassicism and Romanticism.


After the Russian Revolution of 1917 many artists believed that only the most revolutionary art could bring about a new movement, which was called


_____________, who designed a famous armchair, was a student of the Bauhaus school of design in Germany.


The term New York School refers to a postwar art movement that

was a convenient way to lump together the Abstract Expressionists.

Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty is an example of

land art

The term postmodern was first used in reference to a certain style in


The Women series of paintings by Willem de Kooning caused a stir in the art world. They were

seen as shocking and brutal.

The Guerrilla Girls use posters and on-site appearances to

bring attention to gender inequalities in the art world.

Painting is the primary medium used by all of the following artists EXCEPT

Louise Bourgeois.

Jasper Johns chose familiar images for his subject matter so that he could then concentrate on all of the following EXCEPT

the psychological use of color.

One of the ideas behind Postmodernism is pluralism, which proposes that art

can take many directions at the same time, all of them equally valid.

The term action painting refers to the fact that this new type of painting

traced the actions of the painter.

Minimalism, a trend that coexisted with Pop, emphasized a continuation of the exploration of nonrepresentation and the idea that a painting or sculpture is primarily

a physical object.

Photorealism refers to

a movement in painting that explores the way a camera "sees."

Early Conceptualists reacted to the burgeoning art market by

attempting to eliminate the art object.

Artist Jean-Michel Basquiat

began as a graffiti artist.

In Joseph Kosuth's One and Three Chairs, the viewer is presented with

three ways of documenting an idea.

Anselm Kiefer was one of the most prominent Neo-Expressionists. His work

dealt directly with the trauma of Germany's past.

A Neo-Dada artist who made art from "found" materials and images and named his new art form "combine paintings" is

Robert Rauschenberg.

Allan Kaprow took art in a new direction with "happenings." His primary claim was

that art was most like life itself.

Appropriation contends that the meaning of a work of art

is unstable and communal.

A new art form known as "installation"

creates an environment for the viewer to enter and experience.

The artistic recycling of existing images is an aspect of


One of the names most closely associated with Performance art is ___________, who is known for the multimedia work Stories from the Nerve Bible.

Laurie Anderson

Roy Lichtenstein often based his imagery on the

comic book.

What type of material did Subodh Gupta use in making the work Very Hungry God?

steel pots and buckets

Knowledge of what would have enriched the experience of those who visited Gupta's Very Hungry God?

Hindu rituals and beliefs

Which of the following permitted Emily Jacir the freedom to produce her project Where We Come From?

her American passport

Takashi Murakami is inspired by otaku, which is a Japanese term that refers to

people with all-consuming interests.

In Gabriel Orozco's Horses Running Endlessly,

the game is what the viewer makes of it.

Which of the following interiors would artist Ernesto Neto most like to create a work for?

a cave

Ernesto Neto's Leviathan Thot was a temporary installation at the

Paris Pantheon.

Which of the following places had a profound effect on the work of Olafur Eliasson?


Two things that influence the art of Olafur Eliasson are

nature and color

The work 360-Degree Room for All Colors was done by

Olafur Eliasson.

Evoking a Hindu ritual, Subodh Gupta did what outside the church that housed his Very Hungry God?

served soup

Refrigerator magnets depicting Michelangelo's David and Botticelli's Venus as jewelry are an example of

visual culture

In Neto's Leviathan Thot, the artist thinks of his work as a ____________, another art of gravity, grace, balance and interaction.


Horses Running Endlessly is by the _____________ artist ____________.

Mexican; Orozco

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