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37 terms

Basic Structure of the Human Body

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cells
the basic unit of structure and function of all living things
cell membrane
regulates transport of substances into and out of the cell
nucleus
serves as the "brain" for the control of the cell's metabolic activities and cell division
organelle
microscopic structure within the cell having a special function or capacity
chromatin
DNA and protein material in a loose and diffuse state; during mitosis chromatin condenses to form the chromosomes
chromosome
nuclear material that determines hereditary characteristics
nucleolus
functions as a reservoir for RNA
Ribosomes
serve as a site for protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum
provides passages through which transport of substances occurs in cytoplasm into and out of the nucleus
mitochondria
serves as sites of cellular respiration and energy production; stores ATP
golgi apparatus
manufactures carbohydrates and packages secretions for discharge from the cell
lysosomes
serve as centers for cellular digestion
centrosome
contains two centrioles (organelles found near nucleus) that are functional during animal cell division
cytoplasm
sticky, semi-fluid material found between the nucleus and the cell membrane
adenosine triphosphates (ATP)
chemical compound consisting of one molecule of adenine, one of ribose, and three of phosphoric acid. This is the high energy fuel a cell requires to function.
chromatid
strand of the replicated chromosome
pinocytic vesicles
engulf large molecules, such as protein and fat, in a solution and taking them into the cell
genome
total mass of genetic instruction humans inherit from their parents
protoplasm
basic substance of all life, material that makes up all living things
Mitosis
asexual reproduction process used by most cells
meiosis
process by which sex cells (gametes) reproduce
congenital disease
acquired during development of the infant in the uterus and existing at or dating from birth
inherited disease
transmitted from parents to child genetically
infectious disease
caused by a pathogenic organism such as bacteria or a virus
degenerative disease
caused by a deterioration of the function or structure of body tissues and organs
vacuoles
pouch-like structure in the cytoplasm that is filled with a watery substance, stored food, or waste products
tissues
cells of the same type join together for a a common purpose
epithelial tissue
covers the body surface and main tissue in skin, forms lining o intestinal, respiratory, circulatory, and urinary tracts, forms body glands where it specializes to produce secretions such as mucus and digestive juices
Connective tissue
supporting fabric of organs and other body parts
soft connective tissue
adipose, fatty tissue, fibrous connective tissue (ligaments and tendons)
hard connective tissue
cartilage and bone
nerve tissue
made up of specialized cells called neurons - nerves, brain, and spinal cord are composed of this
muscle tissue
produces power and movement through contraction of muscle fibers
organ
two or more tissues join together or a specific function
systems
organs and other parts that join together for a particular funtion
dehydration
insufficient amount of tissue fluid
edema
excess amount of tissue fluid, swelling