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113 terms

Music Literature Midterm

Sacred music in the middle ages,Renaissance sacred music, Renaissance Secular Music, and transition from Renaissance to Baroque period, and Baroque music styles &
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Monophonic
single line melody
Gregorian Chant
features monophonic,nonmetric,
Syllabic
one note sung to each syllable of text
Neumatic
small groups of up to five or six notes sung to a syllable
Melismatic
long groups of notes set to a single syllable of text.
Mass
Central service of the Roman Catholic Church
Identify the 5 component parts of the Ordinary of the Mass
1. Kyrie
2. Gloria
3. Credo
4. Sanctus
5. Agnus Dei
Identify several of the component parts of the Proper of the Mass
1. Introit
2. Gradual
3. Alleluia (or Tract)
4. Offertory
5. Communion
Responsorial singing
alternating between a soloist and a chorus.
Organum
the earliest type of polyphony, with two, three, or four-voice parts sung in fixed rhythmic patterns.
Polyphony
musical texture in which two or more melodic lines are played or sung simultaneously
Rhythmic modes
fixed rhythmic patterns
Polytextual
multiple texts
Liturgy
set order of church services and to the structure of each service.
How many Gregorian melodies are there?
more than three thousand
Neumes
little ascending and descending symbols, were written above the words to suggest the contours of the melody.
Modal
Characterizes music that is based on modes other than major and minor, especially the early church modes.
Identify 3 of the Offices
Lauds (dawn prayer), Sext (midday prayer), and Vespers (evening prayer)
What is the language of the Kyrie? What is its form?
Greek, A-A-A-B-B-B-C-C-C form
When was Vatican II?
1962
What were the goals of those who lived in convents and monasteries?
To withdraw from secular society.
Where is the closest monastery?
Tulsa, OK (Clear Creek or St. Joseph)
The life of Hildegard
was promised to the church as a tithe by her parents. She was the youngest of ten children.
Founded her own convent in 1150 in Rupertsberg, Germany.
completed three collections in manuscript entitled Scivias.
wrote religious poetry with music in a volume "Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial Revelations/Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum) Liturgic cycle.
Two of Hildegard's major works
The Play of the Virtues (Ordo virtutum) and Alleluia
Throat Singing
Multiphonic chanting of the Buddhist monks from Tibet, in Central Asia. Each monk sings a chord of two or three tones, including a fundamental pitch(the tone that generates the over-tone series).
Santeria
practiced in many Caribbean cultures. Highly rhythmic and dancelike, and is often accompanied by drums and various idiophones. Call and response, polyrhythmic, conversation with the deity.
The single most important development in the history of western music
Polyphony, the combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines.
Cite two composers identified with the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris
Leonin-Leader of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris during 12th and 13th century. 1st known composer of polyphonic music.

Perotin-
Great Book of Organum
Written by Leonin.
Magnus Liber Organi
was music for the entire church year, in the new polyphonic style.
Perotin expanded it and increased the number of voice parts(first to three, then four).
Motet
Refers to the words that were added to the vocal lines.
Sometimes two different texts went on at the same time--in Latin or French. (Polytextual)
From what is the word 'motet' derived?
Derived 'mot'-french for word.
Counter-melody
a melody heard against another
Tenor
Derived from Latin word 'tenere' meaning to hold
The bottom voice of the motet
Incipit
First few words of the opening line. In music it can also refer to the opening notes of a composition. Before the development of titles, texts were often referred to by their incipits.

Incipit comes from the Latin for "it begins"
Trouvere
poet-musicians in the northern region of France.
A capella style
vocal work without instrumental accompaniment
points of imitation/pervading imitation
musical ideas are exchanged between vocal lines, the voices imitating one another so that the same phrase is heard in different registers.
Homogenous blending of voices
...
Word painting--text painting
making the music reflect the meaning of the words--favored in secular music.
Cantus firmus
fixed melody as the basis for elaborate ornamentation in the other voices.
Identify 2 prominent composers of the early Renaissance
Guillaume Du Fay
Josquin des Prez

or
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Cite 3 Italian courts, city &family name
Cardinal Ascanio Sforza of Milan and Ercole d'Este, duke of Ferrara, in Rome.

Name: St. Mark's
City: Venice, Italy
Family Name: duke of Mantua
Homorhthmic
a texture in which all voices move together rhythmically.
What is the language of ave Maria...virgo serena?
Latin
Reformation
protestant revolve led by Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Counter-Reformation
(1530) Catholic Church's response focused on a return to true Christian piety.
Strove to recapture the loyalty of its people.
Council of Trent
1545-1563
regulate every aspect of religious discipline
Give several reforms in music dictated by the Council of Trent
(use of secular spirit in sacred music, noisy instruments, thought that polyphony jumbled the text in mass. Abolished all sequence parts of the mass except for 4.
Where was Palestrina employed?
He was employed at the Sistine Chapel Choir and then St. Peter's.
How many masses did Palestrina compose?
over a hundred.
What legend persists about the Pope Marcellus Mass?
that it was written to satisfy the new recommendations for polyphonic church music
What was Palestrina's ideal sound?
Restrained, serene, and celestial.
Chanson
Written for 3 or 4 voices and set to to love verses of French Renaissance poets.
Italian Madrigal
most important secular genre

an aristocratic form of poetry and music

text was usually a short poem of lyric or reflective character, often emotional words(weeping sighing, trembling, dying)

Instruments duplicated and sometimes substituted for the voices.
Dance Music
Instruments were determined by occasion (outdoor performances-loud instruments or intimate settings-soft)
Embellishments
Melodic decorations
Where was Renaissance music performed? By whom?
Renaissance music was performed by professionals and amateurs.

Music was played at court, civic festivities, and at home.
How many voices were found in a Renaissance chanson?
4
Identify 2 pre-eminent composers of the chanson.
Guillaume Du Fay and Josqui des Prez
Phrygian mode
not major or minor and no tonic (like Spanish music)
What 3 cities were known for music publishing?
Venice, Paris, and Antwerp
Cite 3 outdoor instruments, cite 3 indoor instruments
Outdoor: Shawms, sackbut(like trombone), and corretto
Indoor: Recorders, viola, pipe
Pavane
duple, slower (means peacock) Renaissance dance
Saltarello
jumping, dance (means grasshopper) Renaissance dance
Galliard
more vigorous than Saltarello. triple meter/fast. Renaissance dance
Allemande-Courante
(means German dance) moderate duple time
Ronde
(means round dance) usually in a circle or line
Danserye
a collection written by Tielman Susato.
Very cheerful and fit to play on all musical instruments.
Shawm
Like oboe
Sackbut
Like trombone
Cornetto
made of wood and had a cup-shaped mouthpiece like a brass instrument's with finger holes like a woodwinds- loud
Tabor
percussion, a small drum with one head of soft calfskin
Tambourine
a shallow drum with a single drum head and with metallic disks in the sides
Binary form
A-B
Describe the poetry of an Italian madrigal
text was usually a short poem of lyric or reflective character, often emotional words(weeping sighing, trembling, dying)
What are the years of the early, middle, and late madrigal
Early:(1525-50)
Middle:(1550-80)
Late:(1580-1620)
Give a style characteristic of the early, middle, and late madrigal
Early:Composer's chief concern was to give pleasure the performers without thought of display. (Pigano, Arcadelt)

Middle:Words and music were clearly linked (Cipriano de Rome)

Late: Music expressed composer's musical personality and feelings. Rich chromatic harmony, dramatic declamation, vocal virtuosity, and vivid depiction of words in music. (Claudio Monteverdi)
Where was Monteverdi career spent?
St. Mark's as a choirmaster.
Where is the basilica of St. Mark's?
Venice
What unusual features allowed for the composition of a polychoral style?
The churches balconies and resonant acoustics inspired composers to write polychoral music--2 or 3 choirs in one piece.
Concerto delle donne
ensemble of ladies, 16th century at the court of Ferrara in the last decades of the 16th century was the first all-female vocal ensemble established at a court.
Give examples of text painting in Ecco mormorar l'onde
Rustling of leaves ("tremolar le fronde") in wavelike pattern
Morning breeze ("a 'aura matutina"), with flowing melisma
full-textured, slow moving chords for 'heavy heart'
Identify Monteverdi's principal works.
Operas, including Orfeo and L'incoronazione di Poppea(The Coronation of Poppea. 1642)
9 books of madrigals, Vespers, motets, and poems.
When did Elizabeth I reign?
(1558-1603)
Cite 3 important English madrigalists
Thomas Morley, Thomas Weelkes, and John Farmer
Musica transalpina
(Music from beyond the Alps) 1588 The first collection of Italian madrigals published in England. The songs were translated.
What is the subject of the poem for Fair Phyllis?
Lust/sex
Give events of John Farmer's life.
From Dublin, Ireland. He was organist and master of the choirboys at Christ Church.
Quatrain
A stanza or group of four lines of poetry
How is word painting employed in Fair Phyllis?
There is one singer singing on the phrase 'sitting all alone'.
Large intervals up and down, while text is 'up and down'
Polychoral music
multiple choirs
Antiphonal performance
alternation(opposing groups) choirs and instruments
Compare and contrast Renaissance and Baroque style
Renaissance had modal harmony, baroque had major/minor tonality.

Renaissance had imitative polyphony, baroque had a new monodic or solo style: polyphony in late Baroque.

Renaissance had a'capella, in Baroque concerted music(voices and instruments) were more popular
What is the first piece to specify instrumentation and indicate dynamics?
'Sonata pian' e forte' by Giovanni Gabrieli
When is the feast of Corpus Christi held?
held on a Thursday after Trinity Sunday
Name two composers from each: Medieval,Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern periods.
Medieval: Hildegard of Bingen & Guillaume Du Fay
Renaissance: Josquin des Prez & Giovanni da Palestrina
Baroque: J.S. Bach, and Handel
Classical: Mozart and Beethoven
Romantic: Chopin & Tchaikovsky
Modern: Aaron Copeland & Debussy
English Madrigal
Lighter, polished, less dramatic, suave vocal style, often a fa la la refrain.
Name 5 style traits of Hildegard of Bingen: Alleluia ,O virga meadiatrix
1.Responsorial (alternation between solo and chorus)
2.Monophonic texture(unaccompanied) and Nonmetric(free rhythm)
3. Range of 9 notes (just over an octave)
4. Conjunct movement with few leaps
5. Text setting shifts between melismatic( many notes to a syllable) and neumatic (small groups of notes to a syllable).
Name 5 style traits of Notre Dame School Organum: Gaude Maria Virgo(rejoice Mary, virgin)
1. 2 upper voices singing rhythmically over sustained bottom voice
2. 2 upper parts exchanging melodic ideas
3. Long-short rhythm repeated, then faster, even notes
4. Highly melismatic (only 2 words in organum)
5. Shifts from organum to chant(sung monophonically)
Name 5 style traits of Mout me fu grief/Robin m'aime/Portare
(Greatly Grieved am I/Robin loves me/To carry
1. Polyphonic texture with interweaving lines.
2. Repetition of short melodic phrases.
3. Different instrumental timber on each line.
4. Soprano voice singing the trouvere song (middle line)
5. Tenor voice singing the rhythmically active top voice
Name 5 style traits of Josquin:Mille regretz
1. Opening leap of a fourth in soprano
2. Changing texture, from homorhythmic pairs to imitative voices
3. Sad mood of text, heard in modal setting
4. Mostly syllabic text setting: short melisma on 'regretz'
5. Repeated last line of text and music.
Name 5 style traits of Susato: Three Dance
1. Lively, quick-paced dance tunes
2. Each dance in binary form, with 2 repeated sections
3. Regular phrases of 4 or 8 measures
4. Prominence of melody, played by various loud solo instruments.
5.Final repeat of first dance and chord for dancers' bow.
Name 5 style traits of Monteverdi: Ecco mormorar l'onde
1. Careful musical pictorialization of each image of nature(waves, rustling leaves, birds' song, breeze)
2. Alternation of voice groups, from low to high, in playful exchange
3. Clear text declamation and repeated phrases.
4. Somber mood and slower pace in closing line, to portray 'heavy heart'
Basso Continuo
bass part played by 2 instruments (chordal instrument--lute/keyboard and bass instrument--bassoon/low stringcello)
Figured bass
composers put a numeral above or below the bass note, indicating the chord required, the performer filled in the necessary harmony.
The Camerata
Derived from the Italian word for 'Salon'
Aristocratic humanists who aimed to resurrect the musical-dramatic art of ancient Greece.

Camerata members fostered the invention of Opera.

Vincenzo Galilei
Giulio Caccini
Jacopo Peri
La nuove musiche
'The new music' (Origins of Opera)
called the expressive style.
Fostered by the Camerata memembers.
Who composed the 1st modern opera?
Monteverdi
Equal Temperament
tuning system that allows instruments to play in all keys. (major and minor tonalities as well as key signatures)
Well-Tempered Clavier
Composed by J.S. Bach
2 volumes.
for clavichord/harpsichord
each book was 24 preludes and fugues. 48 pieces in total.
Brandenburg Concerto
J.S. Bach
Baroque Style
Vigorous rhythm
terraced dynamics (forte/piano)
Doctrine of Affections
an entire piece or movement was normally built on a single affection(joy, anger, love etc.)